Short term lets on the rise in Sri lanka: is this good for the tourism industry?

The informal tourism sector is growing in Sri Lanka and Hiran Cooray Chairman of the Tourist hotels of Sri Lanka for one thinks it’s a good thing.  ( see  report in the Daily Mirror )

So do I.

By his reckoning 2/5th of tourists coming to Sri Lanka now stay in rented apartments, villas and homestay accommodation many of which are rented out via organisations such as Homestay.com Trip Advisor, AirB&B and the like.

Benefits

So why is this a good thing? Let’s start with the positive side.

  • Money paid by tourists goes directly to local people;

“Tourists staying within the local communities pass the revenue directly to the bottom of the income pyramid, fast-tracking grass root level economic development.” Hiran Cooray

  • Visiting tourists get to mix with local people rather than stay cooped up in hotels full of foreigners and they get to experience and enjoy true Sri Lankan hospitality; plus they get to hang out away from traditional tourist areas.
  • Because tourist are using existing facilities there is no additional strain on local authority services
  • The emergence of the informal rental market actually expands what Sri Lanka has to offer to tourists.

Not everyone (Chinese apart maybe) wants to stay in an hotel. A significant number of tourists like to do their own thing, explore local areas eat when they want in and around local Sri Lankans, and so on. They don’t want to be “trapped” in a cramped and possibly quite expensive hotel room. They like the space and informality that the informal sector can offer and when you can stay in an apartment in Havelock City for example.. at a much lower cost.. well why wouldn’t you?

AAEAAQAAAAAAAAIoAAAAJGUwZDE2Zjg1LTc5ZmQtNDk3Zi1iMmM1LWM2YzRhZTYwYWZhMQ

Havelock City; example of apartment

doing away with the negatives :

  • Unlike the major developments which are springing up around the coast from Kalpitiya to Mirissa and down the east coast; there is no negative environmental impact.
  • There are no major costs to be borne by local communities, economic, environmental or social
  • Homestay and the rental market place no extra strain on stretched local authority services such as electricity, water supply and refuse disposal (although the latter doesn’t seem to be working that well)
Costs
  • owners of rented accommodation don’t pay tourist taxes
  • they are not registered; no-one knows how many there are
  • there is no real quality control beyond what TripAdvisor and AIR B&B can exert
Is it a threat?

So does  the hotel sector needs to worry? No of course not. Sri Lanka can offer world class tourist accommodation for those who want it; plus Colombo is set become a signicant business hub in South Asia so the growth of business tourism which depends on quality hotels is almost assured.

It’s just that not every one can afford the prices that some city centre hotels charge in Colombo for example.

(I could add from my experience that for the money sometimes the service could be a whole lot better, some hotel staff could be a little less “up themselves” but that is for another blog.)

Where it is possible to agree with the Hotels Association is that it is not a level playing field because the informal sector are mainly unregistered and do not have to pay the tourist tax and development levy paid by the hotel chains.

True but the owners do pay local and regional taxes; adding the other costs could simply cause them to raise their rentals to a level where they would not get business so thinking about applying these extra costs or banning the advertising of short term rental and homestay on the web (as has happened in New York for example) is not a step to be taken lightly.

That said there is a case for regulation to be introduced in homestay and private rentals to ensure quality and value for money.

Research needed

In the meantime there is very little data available on the growth of the informal sector at present and maybe it would be worth conducting research so that all concerned know what it is they are discussing.

So time to start asking questions;

  • Where do informal sector tourists stay ? In Colombo? Western Province? Or coastal areas? Maybe it would be worth finding out.

To judge by the Air B&B site much of it is in and around Colombo. If that is so then is it a bad thing? Getting more people to visit Colombo and stay for longer, not necessarily in the city centre can only be good for the economy.

  • Who are these type of  tourists; where do they come from?
  • How long do they stay?
  • What do they do, where do they go what do they visit?
  • Why do they choose rental/homestay?
  • What about the owners/renters: who are they? What accommodation is being used and why?
  • How much money is it making for the owners?

As I wrote in an earlier blog; A Paradise Lost ; see https://geosrilanka.wordpress.com/2015/06/16/sri-lanka-tourism-is-it-just-a-case-of-re-branding/, my belief is that Sri Lankan tourism needs a balanced portfolio of investment; homestay and apartment rentals are.   a part of that, (as is mass tourism) because it has the value of bringing tourists much closer to an understanding of Sri Lankan life and culture.

After all, there is nothing better than hanging out around Water’s Edge on a Saturday night along with the thousands of families who come to chill, enjoy the street food , and relax over an affordable beer maybe.. and you don’t get to do that at The Cinnamon Grand

Boardwalk

 

Advertisements

A profile of underserved settlements in Colombo

When it comes to developing world cities, Colombo is one example of a city that does not fit the usual text book models; no massive sprawling slums on the periphery of the city, no rampant in migration to the city and very few houses which could be classed as extremely poor.

 So terms like “squatter settlement” and “shanty” don’t really apply to Colombo.

A better term for low income settlements might be Underserved Settlements or USS; and underserved is a term that applies to the houses of the urban poor wherever you go.

Text book examples are helpful up to a point, but what students get are generalisations. What students need is hard facts from real examples, whilst understanding that what they see is the result of a set of circumstances which is some ways is unique to a particular country.

This is the first of two short articles looking at the situation of the urban poor in Colombo Sri Lanka. It focusses on the nature of the underserved settlements. Most of the information is taken from a report by the NGO Sevanatha ( featured in an earlier article )

Brief History  

According to the first census of population in 1871 the city Colombo had a population of just under 99,000. By 1911 this had risen to just under 200,000 and it rose steadily throughout the 20th century  at rates between 1.5% and 3 %.  It now stands at 642000. ( The Colombo district is of course much larger with the 2012 census putting the population at just short of 2,310,000.)

There was never a period of explosive growth or in migration.

According to the literature underserved settlements ( USS) in Colombo date back to the time of colonial rule when the British brought in workers from surrounding rural areas, and from India, to work in offices, factories and the port itself.

They were housed in Northern Colombo mainly in rented accommodation. These areas in what we will later call district 1 became a focus for new migrants entering the city. Over time the supply of housing began to lag behind the demand and so as the low income population continued to grow people began to encroach on marginal areas such as canal banks, along railway lines, in marshy areas and abandoned paddy fields.

Land was also set aside for new settlements in the East and South of the city.  For various reasons these settlements were never provided with basic urban services so jsut as with the USS in District 1 they remained lacking in basic service provision and that is the way things have remained.

Over the years there have been a number of improvement schemes. Even so, it is thought that around 50% of the population of Colombo city can still be classed as low income living in underserved settlements.

Sevanatha ; the survey

The NGO Sevanatha undertook a detailed survey in 2012 of all the USS in Colombo. In order to do that, the city was divided into a number of districts; see map below.

district map

Map 1: Enumeration Districts

Researchers from Sevanatha then visited all the USS in the various districts located them on a map and used a scoring system based on a range of poverty/deprivation indicators to classify settlements into one of 4 groups; see table below:

Score % Assessment Category Priority level
> 41 Extreme poor settlement needs immediate attention 1
41-60 underserved; needs improvement 2
61-80 upgraded; but can still be improved 3
< 81 fully upgraded 4
  • priority in this case means priority for improvement

and these are the types levels of service provision we are talking about

Priority 1: unauthorized settlement; houses are temporary, self built, lack of all basic services; water, electricity, individual toilets, proper access roads. In this case the railway line is the only access point. Typically there would be around 100 houses and 134 families living here.

d06-sri3-480

photo 1; railway settlement

Priority 2: this is an underserved settlement. Most of the community have freehold status. Around 75% of the houses are permanent; built with brick/cement block with tiled roofs. Most will have electricity but water supply, individual toilets/bathrooms will be lacking. There will br no connection to the main sewage system.. no proper access or internal road. Typically ther might be 50 families living here.

j09-sri1-480

photo 2

Priority 3; This is an upgraded settlement and it is much bigger; maybe 1500 houses and 3000 families and a population of around 6000. The land is owned by a government agency (National Housing Development Agency). The residents all have permits to live here. nearly all houses are of permanent construction; 80% will have electricity, and water meters and some of the inner roads will be paved. Many will have their own bathrooms.

type 3

photo 3

Priority 4: these are fully upgraded and are probably similar to lower middle class housing elsewhere in the city in terms of electricity supply, water connection, connection to the mains drainage, good standard access and inner access roads. These are often the oldest and most established USS in the city. This one has been in existence for over 30 years.

type 4 improved

photo 4

Low income housing  in Colombo

There are currently 1735 USS in Colombo, the majority of which are small; the following are the main points to note

  • 22% – under 10 houses
  • 32% – 10 – 20 houses
  • 30% – 21 – 60 houses
  • so 84% of USS have 60 houses or less;
  • only 5% of USS have more than 100 houses

When you look at the distribution of the settlements on map 2 below you can see that they are scattered throughout the city; however,

USS map

  1. there is a clustering of settlements in the north of the city  District 1, 2a and towards the Eastern boundary Districts 3 and 4
  2. Districts 1 and 2a hold 72 of the population and 74% of the USS
  3. there is a secondary cluster towards the South East District 4
  4. The western central area is relatively free of  USS District 2b and District 5
The data
  1. Settlement categories by district

Settlement Categories as a % of the total

Area Location total .houses Ex poor underserved upgraded full upgrade % total
1 North 382 0.8 10.7 51.0 37.4 22
2a Central 522 0.2 2.3 43.1 54.4 30
2b Central 376 0.3 5.6 75.0 19.1 22
3 Borella 264 0.4 6.1 56.4 37.1 15
4 East 131 0 3.8 56.5 39.7 8
5 West 60 0 13.3 31.7 55.0 3
total 0.3 5.9 54.4 39.3 100
  • So most settlements have been upgraded to some degree. Only 0.3% are the lowest level; priority 1.
  • The only district with significant numbers of priority 2 settlements  is district 1; the north of the city
  • Fully upgraded USS are similar to lower middle income households. if those are excluded the number of USS reduces down to 1053
  1. Land ownership in the USS   breaks down as follows
  • owned by occupants:             40%
  • owned by govt:                      32%
  • owned by CMDC                    16%
  • privately owned                      7%
  • unclear                                    5%
  • 22% possess user permit
  • 43% own the freehold
  • overall it is estimated that 57% of occupants do not enjoy security of tenure
  1. Housing conditions

more than 84% are classified as permanent

  1. Water/Toilets/Sewage
  • overall 41% of settlements have to make do with common toilets
  • 8% have no toilet facilities
  • 33% of USS have n0 metered water connection
  • 33% either use common facilities or rely on outside sources
  • 5% of communities are in need of safe drinking water and levels of service are rated as a serious problem in 8% of USS
  • 28%  of settlements of USS have serious problems in respect of safe disposal of sewage; only 50% are connected to the city’s sewage network
  1. Electricity supply

 most USS (98%) have electricity connection so not really an issue, BUT lack of street lighting is an issue for 34% of USS communities

  1. Garbage collection

15% of USS report irregular or no collection

author’s note: not sure how reliable this figure is; It is quite common to see mounds of garbage in the USS and there have been problems with garbage collection city wide over the last few years.

  1. Road conditions in settlements
  • 40 % have well maintained tarred roads/pavements with good width access
  • 41% have poorly maintained tarred roads
  • 19% do not have tarred roads
  • adequate drainage is non existent on 83% of internal roads leading to local flash flooding and waterlogging of internal roads

8.  Income levels

  • in only 22% of USS do the majority of households earn more than 20000 lkr (lkr is the sri lankan rupee; 200 to £)
  • in 50% of USS  2/3rds of households earn less than 20,000 lkr
  • overall monthly income in 63% of USS communities is rated as inadequate
  • in the majority of USS less than 10% are in receipt of samurdhi payments; (a kind of state welfare benefit forthe low income/unemployed)
  • in 15% of USS more than 50% of households are single parent households

Other points

  •  community based organisations do not exist in 83% of USS
  • 86% of USS don’t not have community centres
  • community savings programmes are only available in 8% of settlements;
  • there are only 23 setllements where more than 75% of households are engaged in community savings
  • 31% of USS are classified as being in high risk/vunerabilty situations.. particularly flash flooding
  • more than 60% of USS are in the municip[al rate paying category

what this means is that residents are not organised or empowered to negotiate with local or national government agencies to improve service provision and living conditions.

What do USS residents identify as issues and problems

  • need for connection to city sewage network
  • need for private toilets
  • lack of play spaces for children
  • 20% feel social environment could be better
  • 49% feel level of services is inadequate
  • common view is that there is no consultation with residents where major redevelopment schemes are concerned
  • low status and lack of legal identity of the USS makes it hard to enrol children in schools, getting service connections e.g. power and obtaining state benefits
  • where rehousing is concerned, 28% favour on site low rise development, and most wanted any future housing developmentt to take place within their USS

The view of Sevenatha is that these communities need to become  organised and therefore empowered, and to that end this NGO works with local communities to equip them to improve their local environments; see Sevanatha the work of an NGO

Conclusions

If you want to understand the nature of low income settlements in the developing world you need to understand that the conditions in which they grew up in each major city is to some degree unique. That makes generalisations about  low income settlements of limited value.

Most of the urban poor in Colombo have solved the basic need: shelter. Not only that, in many cases they have gone much further in terms of improving their individual homes although this has taken them a fair amount of time to acquire the funds to do it. This is a pattern you see across the developing world.

What has been lacking in Colombo is any real drive by the authorities to support the efforts of the USS residents by adding in mains water supply, connections to the sewage network, and improving access and internal roads.

Once again the residents have realised that they have to do this themselves which is why the efforts of  Sevanatha and the women’s cooperative bank  (see earlier article) have gained traction

next up:

The government response has been different.

I was around in the 1960’s in the UK when comprehensive redevelopment and slum clearance brought in the hi rise urban council estates.. and we maybe can reflect on how (un)successful that was..think of Hulme in Manchester, (thankfully now bulldozed away) for example.

Sadly the authorities in Colombo seem bent on making the same errors..so the next article is all about the current rehousing scheme or enforced resettlement depending on your point of view.. what, where, how and the likely impacts.

 

 

Waldringfield UK; a community led flood protection project

In 2013 a storm surge in the North Sea threatened communities up and down the East coast of the UK. Whilst many coastal settlements had benefited from flood protection schemes others like Waldringfield, a small village on the Deben estuary in Suffolk were left out of the loop and vulnerable. So when the surge came the inevitable result was flooding to the village.

Despite the flood there were no plans to put flood protection in place. Instead of taking a fatalistic view, however, the local community came together to raise the funds to create, not only an effective flood protection scheme (one of the first of its kind in the UK),  but at the same time create a nature reserve to enhance the local area. This case study is the story of how this project developed.

What is a storm surge?

Storms along the coast can cause sea levels to rise way above their normal level which leads to coastal flooding. So what causes a storm surge? The two diagrams taken from the UK Meteorological  Office site explain how this can happen.

  • A deep low pressure cell (depression) moves eastwards into the North Sea basin.
  • The low pressure at the centre of the storm “pulls” the water level up, by about 1 cm for every 1 millibar change in pressure.

europe - detailed

source: UK meteorological office

  • As the depression moves down the North Sea basin it generates high winds from a northerly direction. The winds push the sea water southwards and towards the coast, causing it to “pile up” along the coast, raising the sea level and creating a “surge”. This is a predictable event. The residents in Waldringfield knew 24 hours in advance that the surge was on its way, for example.
  • The strong winds in the storm generate large waves on top of the surge which can cause damage to sea defences, or spill over the top of sea walls adding to the flood risk.

europe - detailed

source: UK meteorological office

Introducing Waldringfield

Waldringfield is a small village on the west bank of the river Deben in Suffolk, on the East coast of the United Kingdom. The village comprises 225 houses with a population of 464 (2012). The village has a village hall, pub, boatyard and is home to Waldringfield Yacht Club.

The maps below show the location of Waldringfield in Suffolk and in the UK


                                                                                      waldringfieldlocation east coast

The 2013 Flood

On the 5 December, 2013 a large storm surge hit the east coast of the UK causing widespread flooding along the coast. This was a prime example of low pressure, high winds and high tidal conditions combining to create surge conditions;

  • It was the largest tidal surge since 1953 and water levels were actually higher than in 1953
  • Many East coast estuaries were flooded; The Stour, Deben and Orwell rivers all reported  flood damage.

Waldringfield is on the Deben estuary and suffered significant flooding on the river frontage. The following is the list of damage:

  • The river wall to the north of the village was overtopped, causing flooding of the meadow behind it.
  • The boatyard and about 18 residences on the Quay were also flooded to a depth of about 5 feet,  as well as several beach huts and land to the south of the village.
  • There was one casualty, who was taken to hospital by ambulance.
  • The fire service attended to a fire around 1.30am, which was caused by the flood water shorting the electric gates of a property on the Quay.
  • A heating oil tank and a gas tank floated off it stand, but, fortunately, remained attached to it feed pipes
  • The river wall was badly damaged in places, but it wasn’t breached.

The total cost of the damage and repairs was estimated to be: £10 million overall

The Waldringfield Flood Defence Group (WFDG)

The group got together informally 6 months prior to the flood. They were aware of the flood risk plus they were also aware that Waldringfield was not included in existing flood protection schemes for the Deben estuary. This was possibly because only 18 properties and the boat yard were at risk of flood at that time. (even though the real estate value of those properties is possibly above £20 million

Note: The village of Waldringfield  stretches about 1km inland from the river Deben and the majority of the village sits well above flood level. The lane known as The Quay is the  area liable most likely to flood in the village, see map below:

Waldringfield map cropped Page 1

When the flood occurred, and with no direct help from the government forthcoming, the 18 affected  households formed The Waldringfield Flood Defence Group (WFDG). It had significant support from a number of sources including: The Environment Agency, Suffolk Coastal District Council. The Deben Estuary Partnership, Waldringfield Parish Council, Lord Deben, Chairman of the UK’s Independent Committee on Climate Change, and the local MP, Dr Therese Coffey. Very quickly the group came up with a plan to create a two stage project for the immediate area area: this involved:

  1.  an outline plan for the design of new flood defences; including a raised sea wall 1km in length, flood gates, and movable flood barriers to protect the boatyard (completed within 3 months)
  2. the protection and preservation of a freshwater meadow and marshland habitat north of the village through the repair and strengthening of the river wall.
  3. restoration of  salt marsh which would add to the protection the sea wall.

Funding for the  £1million project was achieved mainly through grants,  including £633,000 from the Government’s Coastal Community Fund. The initial work on the salt marsh  was partly funded by the Suffolk Coast & Heaths Area of Outstanding Beauty unit.), and is visible at low tide.  A further 1,000m of protection is being funded by the Coastal Communities fund at a cost of £100,000

How do salt marshes protect flood defences?

Salt marshes play a major role in flood defence.  Salt marshes are effective buffers to wave action, by creating shallow water which reduces the power of waves. The wider the salt marsh the the more effective it is in protecting the sea wall. One study carried out at Cambridge University found that “salt marshes can reduce the height of damaging waves in storm surge conditions by close to 20%”

What has been achieved?

Stage 1: Raising the flood defences: protecting homes, businesses and jobs.

The live link will take you to the project page which details each step in the process. Stage 1 was completed in February 2015. The main points are as follows:

  • A new reinforced wall was built in front of the properties on The Quay at 3.5m OD. Each of the riverside properties now has its own steel reinforced gate to allow access to the footpath

DSC_0064

  • A  steel flood barrier was erected next to the boatyard. This can be closed by the Environment Agency in the event of a flood warning.
  • Removable steel barriers have been erected in the boatyard; they will be removed to allow boats  access to the river for launching but can be put in place in the event of a flood warning. (see below)

closable flood barrier removable flood barrier

Stage 2: Raising the river wall: repairing a footpath and creating a freshwater wildlife reserve

The live link will take you to the project page which details each step in the process. Stage 2 was completed in October 2015.

The main object of the scheme has been to create a wildlife reserve on a freshwater marsh area, which was formerly owned by the local vicar. When he died his executors agreed to allow the conversion of part of the farmland to a lagoon and nature reserve.

The lagoon area at present is bare.. it looks like a building site.. but it has been planted with sedges and within a few years it will naturalise to form an attractive habitat for birds and mammals, such as the water vole and a family of otters.

lagoon

see small scale map for location

After the flood there was concern over state of sea wall to north of village and the footpath which was also damaged when flood water overtopped the wall. So a decision was made to flatten the top of the wall and to widen the footpath.

The footpath is now much wider and more level as the photo below shows. Some locals probably feel that it is unnatural but access has been improved, and the path is accessible and usable all year. Access to the nature reserve will also be improved for locals and visitors alike.

footpath

the footpath looking north; now wider and flatter

Salt marsh restoration

The saltmarsh in front of the sea wall to the north of the village varies in width. Immediately north of the village it is quite degraded; see below but widens out . The WFDG scheme allows for the installation of brushwood  fences which have been installed in the marsh in front of the sea wall. The hope is that these fences will trap sediment on the outgoing tide and help to build up the marsh in front of the sea wall to add some degree of additional protection to the sea wall and the footpath. There remains another 1000 metres of fencing to install to complete the job.

degraded marsh

the degraded salt marsh

brushwood fences

brushwood fences in place to protect the sea wall

Local community action: is this the way forward?

This scheme is the first of its kind so far as I can tell and The Environment Agency is keen to use this project as a pilot to demonstrate how local communities projects such as this one can be the forerunner for other schemes which fall outside of government support.

  1.  The WFDG were successful because:
  • they were already organized
  • they had the necessary skills to produce a fully drawn up and costed project plan
  • they had the skills to lobby for financial support
  • they acted quickly
  • they worked together and without internal wrangling/disagreement

2.  The value of the community based approach was that they designed it themselves and so it was fit for their purpose; basically they got what they wanted but also created a scheme with significant utility and value to the village as a whole.

3.  At the same time they turned it into a multi purpose project by:

  • protecting the sea wall
  • creating a much more accessible and usable footpath alongside the river, an improved amenity for all
  • working with the estate of the recently deceased vicar to create the wildlife reserve which will be of broad ecological value but also will provide a real amenity to be enjoyed by locals and visitors and will add to the attractiveness of the riverside

I recently interviewed Janette Brown, the secretary of the Waldringfield Flood Defence Group and started by asking her to take us back to the night of the flood. You can listen to the full interview here:

Welcome to Geo Sri Lanka: case studies for A level geographers

Hi, my name is Phil Brighty. The title for the blog Geosrilanka comes from the fact that I lived and worked in Colombo  for nearly 7 years, and came to really love the country and its people. You will find case studies focussed on geographical  issues in a developing country: Sri Lanka. Up until recently South Asia has been a neglected are for study; however, it is a rich area for study geographically and,  just as importantly, offers new material for students. As a teacher I was always on the lookout  to get away from the same old examples everyone uses…which is why I set up this blog. I hope you find the case studies useful.

List of articles; click on this link to see the full range of  articles

Dengue in Sri Lanka:  Dengue fever in Sri Lanka is reaching epidemic proportions: check out the latest Dengue update.

Apart from Geosrilanka I write mainly for for GeoFactsheets.. However, I have also published in The Geographical Review, and Geofile Online.

Before that I was Head of Geography at The Sixth Form College Colchester and then was based at Colombo International School as HOD and Head of Secondary School. In the past I have been an A level examiner for OCR, AQA and also an examiner for IB diploma geography.

 Fieldwork in Sri Lanka;

Sri Lanka is a great place to undertake fieldwork for A level geography..most places are accessible and value for money; plus for students it can be the trip of a lifetime because with careful planning they get to experience what regular tourists never can:

If you are interested click on the live link above to find out more..

Feedback; would love to have some

What would be interesting to know is how people are using the case studies..are students being referred to the site? are teachers using them in class or as research and prep for lessons?

The blogs are very much summaries of often large numbers of links, websites etc. If anyone wants to know more, wants help with resources, especially with Sri Lanka in mind, then I would be happy to respond.

There is an opportunity to comment so do send comments in and I will put them up.

Stop Press: Just added

Making sense of the Sri Lankan monsoon

Dengue Update; dengue cases could top 150,000 this year!

Colombo Garbage Dump Collapse

The Indian Ocean Monsoon part 1: is the monsoon becoming less predictable?

Plus 2 articles have been updated

Dengue Update

Challenges ahead for the Sri Lankan Garment Industry

more… 

Next Up: 

The Monsoon, Drought and Global Warming in Sri Lanka; prospects and problems