The Chilaw Mangrove Project; case study and exercise

One area where active conservation is taking place is the Chilaw lagoon; see map below. 

 

Halfway up the west coast this is an area which was formerly mangrove forest. However, a great deal of it has been cleared for shrimp fisheries. Now an NGO, Seacology in cooperation with The Small Fishers Federation of Sri Lanka  ( SUDEESA) are collaborating on a scheme to return sections of the lagoon to its former state.

Chilaw lagoon

This post is part information / case study and part an exercise sheet which can be adapted by teachers and students. I hope you find it useful.

Background:

the following are excerpts taken from  online sources. Read through the following excepts re; Shrimp Farming in the Chilaw Lagoon

Excerpt One

  1. The mangrove areas of Chilaw Lagoon have for a long time sustained the subsistence economies of the surrounding human communities, especially through provision of firewood, poles, posts, tanbark and also crabs, shrimps, molluscs and a variety of finfish for consumption. However, population densities have been steadily rising:

1971    350 persons/km2

1981    444 persons/km2

2009    506 persons/km2

Points

  • Unemployment levels are around 30% (2009)
  • Self employment accounts for 30% of work force
  • The population relies heavily on agriculture (23%) and fishing (16%)
  • the fishermen and shrimp farmers use traditional boats; outrigger canoes amd log rafts but many don’t use boats at all, just nets
  • most shrimp farms are relatively small employeing on average 3 or 4 workers

Excerpt 2

Shrimp farming did not start until the mid-1980s in the western coastal belt between Kalpitiya and Negombo, but there has been a rapid expansion in shrimp cultivation in recent years.The total number of farms in the Chilaw area has grown to 183 since 1993, when the CEA/Euroconsult survey estimated there to be approximately 18 farms in operation. This is a ten-fold increase on the numbers estimated in 1993. The area under cultivation in 1994 was approximately 52 hectares. In the 2001 survey it was estimated to be 247.8 hectares, nearly a 5-fold increase in a seven-year time-span.

Profits from Shrimp fishing are high but it’s ecological footprint is high; meaning a large area of lagoon is needed to sustain shrimp farming: estimates for the footprint put it at 27.86./ha.

One hectare of shrimp farm needs nearly 30 ha of lagoon to support it and keep it profitable. Overall the shrimp fiseries in the lagoon would require 2478 ha; much more water area than exists at present.

an area cleared of mangrove for a new shrimp fishery

Excerpt 3

The following important environmental consequences from shrimp farming:

  • Valuable mangrove and marsh land rich in plant and animal life are cleared for pond construction and fringing habitats get heavily degraded. This leads to reduced feeding and breeding habitats for commercially important coastal and marine finfish and shellfish, to the detriment of the lucrative coastal fishery
  • The operation of shrimp farms requires application of nutrients and chemicals (pesticides, lime). When discharged, these pollute the water, causing eutrophication, resulting in algal blooms (often toxic), severe oxygen depletion and high levels of fish/shrimp mortality.
  • Hydrological changes and salinization of ground water occur when brackish water is pumped to shrimp farms situated more inland. Abstraction of ground water for fresh water supply to intensive pond culture may also result in salinization of fresh water aquifers, degrading domestic and agricultural water supplies, leading to social unrest.
  • Intensive farming, where organisms are kept at high densities, requires hatchery seed supplies, supplementary feed and chemicals. On the other hand, the traditional extensive farming keeps the animals at low densities and do not require seed from hatcheries and supplementary feeding. However, extensive farming consumes the large areas of mangrove, with very low productivity in return.
  • The construction of shallow ponds for shrimp farming is reported to have disturbed the drainage patterns in the area, resulting in the inundation of Chilaw and Puttalam areas during the heavy monsoon rains in 1995, adversely affecting over 3,000 households
  • The self-pollution of the lagoon water contributes towards the spread of shrimp disease, reducing productivity, and increasingvulnerability to the shocks and stresses experienced by less wealthy farmers and has negative impacts on household income
  • The clearance of mangroves also has an affect on the capacity of the lagoon to sustain the present levels of production in Chilaw. The cleaning capacity of mangroves will continue to be important to the productivity while the farms are dependent on lagoon water working in open-culture systems.

Excerpt 4

mangrove is valuable to shrimp fisheries in 3 ways

  • nursery for larvae
  • mangrove provides feed for shrimps
  • mangroves can help filter out waste fromn the lagoon

An important feature in (Pambala-) Kakkapalliya is the recent establishment of the Small Fishers Federation of Lanka (SFFL), a non-governmental organisation (NGO) concerned with the well-being of the local fishing community, including their wives and children, and with eco-friendly projects and mangrove conservation

A mangrove rehabilitation project ran by SFFL, lead to the plantation of about 50 000 mangrove seedlings in Pambala Lagoon was inaugurated in 1997. The reforestation plots were visited in the field and estimated to cover about 2.4 ha.

The area required for lagoon water support is calculated to be 4.5 times the surface area of the farms. This means a lagoon water surface area of 1,115 hectares is required per year to support farming in Chilaw. This, perhaps, can help explain the problems the industry in Chilaw, Mundal and Puttalam has suffered from poor quality lagoonwater as a result of self-pollution

An alternative is the use of wetlands as a bio-filter for the effective removal of solidsand the transformation of excess nutrients.

Experimental constructed wetlands, usingplanted vegetation, have been tested successfully for treating effluents from freshwater catfish ponds in the USA, and for treating salt-water shrimp ponds in Thailand

The processes involved in suspended solids and nutrient removal in wetlandsinclude sedimentation, decomposition of organic matter, uptake of nutrients by plants and bacteria, nitrification-denitrification and absorption of ions by soil. Mangroves forests have also been reported as sinks of phosphorous and nitrogen and several authors have reported their effectiveness in removing nutrients from effluent water

The approach of combining shrimp farms and mangroves to act as biofilters, issupported by many environmentalists, as a positive move in the sustainable management of shrimp farms.

The benefits of mangroves as biofilters for shrimp farm effluents may be significant in areas such as Chilaw, where space is limited for the siting of sedimentation ponds, and the regeneration of mangroves may be beneficial to more interest groups than simply shrimp farmers.

Here, the replanting of mangroves, if managed effectively could benefit local communities for livestock fodder, firewood and traditional uses and fisher groups, as  the presence of mangroves have been shown to increase shrimp fishery productivity in Chilaw lagoon

mangrove nurseries in Chilaw

Postscript; Check out: mangroves return to Chilaw Lagoon: http://ll.dw.de/en/mangroves-return-to-chilaw-lagoon/av-39532196

Questions

1.:  Use the search facility on google (Chilaw Lagoon Shrimp Fisheries, shrimp ponds in Sri lanka ) to capture images of the lagoon environment, the traditional fishing outriggers and the shrimp farms; Use the images to describe the environment of Chilaw Lagoon

  1. Outline the factors which have led to the rapid expansion of shrimp farming in the Chliaw lagoon.

3.. What do you understand by the term eocological footprint (EF)? What is the EF for shrimp farming?  Why is the ecological footprint of shrimp farming so high? How does this link to notions of sustainability?

4.  Explain the ways in which mangrove conservation could be beneficial both to shrimp farmers and the wider community in Chilaw lagoon

5. Using the following resource links:

Outline the role the of the local community and especially the role of women in bringing about a more sustainable use of the lagoon resources.

Additional references

  1. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/gallery/2016/jul/26/mangroves-and-incomes-flourish-as-sri-lankas-women-promote-conservation-in-pictures
  2. https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/13876gPrlG6TNF1hXHIz-_6-8Au7GXaJwzt2rZjDsRKA/edit#slide=id.p4
  3. Effective Management for Biodiversity Conservation in Sri Lankan Coastal Wetlands: a measurement of the ecological footprint of shrimp farming in the chilaw lagoon area.
  4. http://www.eurocbc.org/Ecological%20Footprint%20of%20Shrimp%20Farming%20in%20Chilaw.pdf
  5. http://www.ipsnews.net/2015/06/from-residents-to-rangers-local-communities-take-lead-on-mangrove-conservation-in-sri-lanka/

 

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Has Colombo solved its garbage problem?

Despite a number of concerns, ( check out my earlier blog for details ) the proposed development of a sanitary landfill site at Aruwakkalu close to Puttalam up on the west coast is going ahead and Colombo will have a short term solution at least to its garbage problem. The site at Aruwakkalu ( a disused limestone quarry) will cover 45 acres to begin with but could be could be expanded further if need arose. The question is; will this be enough?

the landfill site at Aruwakkalu now

and in its finished state (images; http://www.sundayobserver.lk)

The idea initially is for two trains to run daily from the collecting station at Kelaniya north of Colombo city to Aruwakkalu.  Each train will transport 1,200 metric tons of compressed blocks of solid waste in 13 rail wagons and 26 sealed containers. Eventually the processed garbage will be carried by road. The image below gives some detail of the route.

So how does this landfill work?

It’s basically a large hole in the ground which is sealed with an impermeable bottom liner to prevent leaching and pollution of groundwater.

Waste is deposited in thin layers  and compacted by heavy machinery. to form a refuse cell about 3 metres thick. At the end of each day the  refuse cell is covered with a layer of compacted soil to prevent odours and windblown debris.  When the landfill is completed, it is capped with a layer of clay or a synthetic liner in order to prevent water from entering. A final topsoil cover is placed, compacted, and graded, and various forms of vegetation may be planted in order to reclaim the land.

There are problems to be overcome.

  • methane from the decomposing garbage needs to be burned off although it can be used to generate electricity.
  • pollutant liquids ( leachates ) have to be drained off and removed to avoid polluting the soil.
The need for a sustainable solution

All living things produce waste and in order to survive they have to remove that waste. The same is true for cities. If they cannot, then eventually city life becomes unsustainable. Signs of stress emerge; garbage in the streets, garbage clogging drainage channels and canals, foul smelling air, the spread of insect borne and water borne diseases  like dengue, and negative impacts on health.

Hazards from  open dumps

Open dumping  results in a range of environmental hazards especially because:

  • a large % of the waste is organic which creates highly acidic and toxic leachates in the soil
  • high rainfall, humidity and high temperatures accelerate breakdown of organic material
  1. Dumps are breeding frounds for mosquitos. It is no coincidence that the number of dengue cases is much higher in urban areas such as Colombo. (You can find more on dengue in various other blogs on this site).
  2. Leaching from the dumps pollutes groundwater. The National Water Supply and Drainage Board has found that the ground water aquifers in the greater Colombo area are polluted, primarily because of open dumping of solid waste, and thus unsuitable for use as a source of drinking water supply.
  3. Open solid waste dumps also are a primary source of greenhouse gases such as methane and carbon dioxide, leading to air pollution
  4. In Sri Lanka, high levels of odour, dust and toxic fumes have been found emanating from uncontrolled burning of solid waste (Asian Institute of Technology, 2004).
  5. Haphazard dumping also results in the loss of wetland habitats, which impacts on fauna and flora (particularly in Attidiya and Muthurajawela areas), 
  6. Another serious issue relates to hazardous, electronic and other industrial waste and this includes oil and waste water management since very few facilities are available to recycle such waste in Sri Lanka.
  7. Large unstructured dumps are unstable and prone to collapse; see my blog on the Meethotamulla disaster
Why bother?

For countries in the developing world hoping to get a slice of the development action cities choked by garbage are not attractive places to be. Which multi-nationals would want to locate new offices and  personnel  to glorified rubbish dumps and open sewers.?

And that is what Colombo is becoming. Harsh you think?  Take a look at  a typical street scene in the city. Garbage is just dumped almost anywhere and left; no-one’s responsibility. Everyone does it, not just the poor, although the wealthy are careful not to fly tip in their neighbourhoods preferring low income areas as dumping grounds.

What you see above is random dumping of garbage in the street. But there is garbage dumping on a much greater scale, for example the temporary tip at Keradeniya ( below). Much of it goes unregulated.

Even fragile wetlands such as the Attidiya bird sanctuary haven’t escaped environmental abuse. You have to ask; what are the politicians thinking?

So how has the garbage situation got to this point?

It is estimated that Colombo generates around 8,500 tons of garbage per day but only 25%  is collected. The collected waste finds its way on to open dumps. The rest finds its way onto the streets.

The question is why? As always there is more than one explanation. Here are the main issues.

  • Population Growth: In the last 50 years the population of Colombo has more than doubled and with that the population density has risen from 138 persons per hectare to 268p/ha. Increasing population inevitably means increased amounts of garbage. 
  • Poor governance at both national and municipal level. Until very recently there has been no direction from national government. There has been very little regulation of municipal authorities, a lack of strategic planning and no control of private contractors given contracts for garbage collection and disposal. In other words a free for all with waste management apparently a very low priority for the government. A major problem is that local authorities are not held to account by government,  either for the manner of waste disposal or for the fact that they fail to service all households who are left with little alternative but to roadside dump.
  • Insufficient funding for personnel, vehicles and garbage processing
  • The spread of low-income settlements in urban areas, which go largely unserviced and don’t have access to regular garbage collection
  • Market forces that introduce cheap and unsustainable products, including Increased consumption  of plastic packaging. Inevitably, with the rise of the supermarket chains,  one use plastic bags,  and the increased use of polythene or plastic for wrapping food, there is more waste to dispose of.
  • Lack of environmental health and safety practices among waste collectors
  • Old technology, and limited land for waste disposal.

But there is also another factor; Sri Lanka has a litter culture. Littering is commonplace. Almost everywhere you will see people adding to existing piles or starting new ones; just like this guy.

Littering appears to be acceptable in the public consciousness. Simply put; anti litter laws are not enforced if they exist at all, littering goes unpunished. Nobody cares.

Open Waste dumping is ingrained into Sri Lankan society as a result of:

  • Inadequate municipal collection and disposal
  • Apathy on the part of the public
  • The fact that Sri Lankans don’t really see dumping garbage as a problem, and there seems to be  no motivation to be different;  to recycle,  or to compost.

Attitudes  both political and public need to change

So what are the fixes?

Many argue that landfill is a short term fix not least because of the problems of identifying other potential sites and the resultant public outcry that would ensue in areas targeted for landfill.. Aruwakkalu will eventually fill up. More sites will be needed but given the difficulties the government have experienced finding its first large scale site, can we be sure there will be other sites coming on stream?

1.  The need to re-focus

The recent partial collapse of the open dump at Meethotamulla  which caused more than 30 deaths and damaged or destroyed many low income houses was a wake up call for age government and had the effect of creating a call for a national integrated waste management plan under the control of a government minister. We have to wait to see whether this materialises. However, leaving under-funded municipal authorities to their own devices hasn’t worked.

2.  New approaches

Developing sanitary landfill sites is a step forward and will make a difference but it cannot be the only solution not least because of the expense involved given that the Sri Lankan government is cash-strapped.

Many argue that composting offers an additional way forward given that a large % of waste is organic. The question is; how do you make this happen?

Supporters argue that  community  participation  should be at the core of a drive to more composting a move that could lead to a number of  benefits. Proponents argue that community based composting projects :

  • are cost effective
  • cheaper and therefore not  constrained by limited municipal budgets
  •  reduce the amount of solid waste
  • build environmental awareness within the community
  • would encourage segregation and recycling of waste
  • generate strategies for waste management tailored to local community skills and perceptions
  • build local community involvement through engagement, and developing skills.
  • add an income source for the local community with the sale of recycled materials and compost.

One such example are Community Based Solid Waste Management Projects in Matale and Ratnapura Cities (Integrated resource Recovery Centre Project-IRRC) projects supervised by the Colombo based N.G.O. Sevanatha

‘In Matale, the SEVANATHA with its subsidiary company called Micro Enrich Compost (Pvt) Limited is currently managing the IRRC project. This project has conducted extensive community awareness to motivate the people in residential and non- residential areas to separate waste at source and hand over it to the collectors of the IRRC. In Matale city, the IRRC is handling around seven (07) tons of organic waste at present and working towards achieving nine (09) tons per day capacity soon. It also collects all the recyclable materials and further segregates them for selling at the local market.

Considering the success of IRRC project in Matale, the UN-ESCAP has provided the funding and technical support replicate this model in Ratnapura Municipal area where the city council has provided required support for the project. Accordingly, five (05) tons per day capacity IRR Centre was built at Kanadola in Ratnapura town. This centre was opened in January 2014 and currently running its operation as in Matale. SEVANATHA through its MEC (Pvt) Ltd manages this project in Ratnapura in partnership with the Municipal Council of Rathnapura.” (reprinted from the Sevanatha website)

Final thoughts

The situation in Colombo is dire, and seems to be getting worse. The previous government was successful at keeping the streets clean but at the expense of creating the massive open dump at Meethotamulla. The new landfill site will go some way to getting the existing situation under control but on its own it will not be enough. Even if new landfill sites are found it is hard to see them providing a sustainable solution on their own. There is a crying need for  recycling projects and composting projects to add to the mix.

Educating politicians to take the garbage problem seriously has proven difficult in the past. Educating the public to take better care of the city environment has also proven difficult. However, the current government have ambitious plans for economic development in the coming years.This means attracting foreign direct investment, but in order to be attractive Colombo has to present a greener less polluted face to the world.

Garbage collection and disposal cannot be left to private companies and individuals. it is the state’s responsibility. What is needed then is the appointment of a minister with overall control of garbage collection, street cleaning and the urban environment, with Municipal councils answerable to the ministry; with clear guidelines laid down for all councils to follow and investment in modern equipment, vehicles and personnel to back it up.

The government have recently banned single use plastic bags; big deal! What they need to do is actively prosecute fly tippers and enforce the laws against dumping that exist. Education in the schools is the next step. if the current generational deaf to the threat of a garbage contaminated society then maybe it is up to the younger generation to take the lead.

 

The worst drought in four decades hits Sri Lanka hard

Sri Lanka has just experienced its worst drought for more than forty years. Reservoir levels fell to around 33% of capacity and many tanks dried up or are at low levels. Agriculture, particularly rice padi production has been decimated. One estimate suggested that by November 2016 only 35% of the  nation’s rice padi had been cultivated and that over 1.2 million people have been directly affected by food shortages and loss of income. H.E.P. production was also affected and led to power cuts being imposed during the latter part of the year.

This was the picture for southern India and Sri lanka as of May this year:

source: IWMI

You can find this map for yourself on the IWMI site (they are based in Colombo) and also on the Relief Web site; When it is amplified you will see that a large area of Sri lanka and Tamil Nadu are speckled brown (severe or extreme drought). This was a situation that had been developing for some time but it has come to a head in 2017.

Droughts can be categorised in a number of ways;

  1. When rainfall is well below normal/average levels
  2. When soil moisture content falls well below normal levels
  3. Where lack of rainfall leads to significant decline in agricultural production
  4. Where there is insufficient water to sustain the population

So what we now understand is that rainfall levels fell way short of normal; i.e. there was a rainfall deficit which affected pretty much everywhere apart from the south west of the island, as this map re-printed from Global Risk Insights shows:

 

With the exception of the North West around Puttalam it is the DRY zone which has been affected most. This is the zone which tends to rely on the North-East monsoon for its rainfall. So that means November / December. For the rest of the year high temperatures prevail. High temperatures lead to high evapo-transpiration rates (water loss from the soil and plants) and the soil dries out, storage tanks and reservoirs shrink.

source roar media network

So long as the monsoon rains return in November then all is well and the cycle continues supporting padi production, animal grazing and so on. However, what if the rains are much less than usual? Then soil moisture isn’t replenished and farmers run out of water. That is drought on 3 levels!

What is happening to rainfall?

So what happened to the monsoon in 2015/6/7 especially the North-East Monsoon? Without rainfall data for 2016/7, we can only speculate but anecdotally at least all the evidence points to a failure in the 2016 North East monsoon especially in the Dry Zone. This is borne out by the pattern of rainfall deficit shown on the  rainfall data map where there is a high rainfall deficit pretty much everywhere, South-West excluded.

Possibly this is part of a long term trend. Looking at rainfall data  for the period 2000- 2015 there is a suggestion that in the dry zone rainfall may be declining:

  1. The amount of rain falling between January and August is declining; for example: Batticaloa; Since 2009 7 out of the 9 years have experienced below the average rainfall  for that period. The figures for Jaffna do not show the same trend BUT rainfall in that period only averages 371mm (2000-2015) anyway and given the high evaporation rates that is effectively a very dry season.
  2. For Jaffna and the North the NEM was lower than average 2005/6/7 and then again 2013/4

(Even then the paradox is that whilst rainfall levels may have not dropped that much in some areas the view of senior meteorologists is that  the rains are coming in more intense bursts, that is shorter periods of more intense rain with longer hotter periods between them (attributed to a general rise in temperatures across the South Asia region giving rise to  enhanced convective activity or storm clouds) So the significance of this is that the more intense the rainfall the more of it will run away(surface run-off) rather than soaking into the ground and recharging water tables.)

Causes

The other information we have to factor in is that 2015/6 were both strong El Nino years. El Nino is associated with suppressed convective uplift (the sort that stops rain clouds forming)  2016 also saw the Indian Ocean Dipole in negative phase so the Eastern Indian Ocean was warmer than normal which brought heavy rains to Western Australia but suppressed rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka.

 

So the dark brown areas are areas of negative rainfall anomaly; i.e. much less raeinfall that normal. You may just be able to make out a big smear of brown across southern India and Sri Lanka. It means that rainfall was well down on the average for June and August.

The El Nino has weakened and is now in neutral as is the IOD but clearly the climate system has taken time to revert. What we won’yt know for a few months yet it how the October/November inter-monsoon period is going to react or what will happen to the North east Monsoon.

Impacts

a.  As of 20 August, more than 1.2 million people across 19 out of 25 districts remained affected by drought. Northern, North-Central and Eastern Provinces were reporting low levels of water for agricultural, drinking and household use. The failure of two harvests in 2017 has raised concerns for the food security and livelihoods of affected communities. (relief web).

b.  Reservoirs  fell to dangerously low levels, many at only 30% of normal levels

c.  Plus increasing numbers of people are not getting either enough food or the income to buy food. The country’s rice harvest is likely to be down about 17 percent from the 4 million tons recorded in 2013, which would make it the lowest in six years. (IRIN). This has led to Sri Lanka having to import rice

d. There is a definite geographical pattern to the impact of this drought. It is the (mainly) poorer and more vulnerable communities of the North and East, still weakened by the effects of the Civil War,  who are suffering most as this graphic taken from a local newspaper indicates;

What this drought has shown above all is that water insecurity has become a major issue for Sri Lanka.

Feeling the impacts
  1. Agriculture; without going into too much detail agriculture in Sri Lanka is not well advanced. 40% of cropland is down to irrigated rice production much of it at subsistence level and is characterised by:
  • low levels of mechanization
  • predominantly rain fed
  • a significant % is at subsistence level
  • costs are high and profitability is low
  • land holdings are small
  • there is too much reliance on traditional practices that determine the type of seed, water levels and harvesting patterns. Harvesting patterns based on scientific research are taking time to gain acceptance.
  • water conservation is not high on the list of priorities

Plus there is not enough water transfer capacity to mover water from the wetter mountain zones into the dry zone to irrigate crops and support the population.

All of which makes Sri Lanka vulnerable to climate shocks such as the current drought.

2.  Hydro Electric Power generation

During normal years when reservoirs are at capacity Sri Lanka can generate around 50% of its needs from HEP. Currently the country is supplying just 34% of its power supply from HEP meaning an increasing reliance on imported fossil fuels which pollute the environments and impact on an already delicate balance of payments situation for the country.

Plus there are other factors which impact on water demand to take into account:

  • The population is now much higher than in the 1970s greatly increasing demand for water.
  • Sri Lanka’s per capita water usage has picked up sharply over the past decades with rising living standards.
  • Piped water, bathrooms with showers and flush toilets, industrialization, tourism, vehicle usage have all driven up water use.
Water Security: Practical Solutions

All the indications are that climatic hazard events will become more, not less frequent in the coming decades. So, what to do?

  1.  The commonsense answer ( but not the most practicable in all probability) is to use less water. That could include:
  • changing charging policies for water use; water tariffs are generally thought to be too low so this means that effectively raising the cost of water to the domestic consumer is needed to curb inefficient use and wastage. However, in Sri Lanka where significant numbers of people are already close to the poverty line (however that may be drawn) such a move will hit the poor hardest
  • having a more effective metering system in place particularly where crop irrigation is concerned to ensure a more efficient use of irrigation water
  • exert greater control over use of water by industrial companies and in the tourist sector

2. Conserve water

  • develop efficient water recycling facilities; for example Colombo does not have a proper waste water treatment plant resulting in partially treated water discharged to the ocean. (source Water Sector of Sri Lanka report 2014). This is a crazy situation. Greater Colombo is bound to be a major water user with a high water demand. Why is the waste water simply flushed away when it could be recycled as it is in many other countries
  • industrial pollution of water resources needs to be dealt with; inland waters in urban areas are polluted heavily with domestic sewage and industrial effluents It seems that in many cases domestic waste finds its way directly into rivers; people often use rivers as a latrine and all sorts of waste is dumped in surface streams rendering them unusable as these two images  found in the Sunday Times show.

So here you can see untreated effluent running into the Kelani River from a local canal

and here is a fairly typical scene in a watercourse by a low income settlement

In rural areas with agricultural runoff pollutes rivers and streams. In urban over-crowded cities, there is biological contamination of ground water.  Except for pipe-borne water supply, irrigation and hydro-power schemes, in general water resources in Sri Lanka are managed very poorly. Regulations are available to control most water related problems but enforcement of these regulations is lacking.

… and this is the point. Water is becoming an increasingly scarce resource. There is a real need to conserve existing supplies and re-cycle water effectively.

3.  Develop exiting inter – basin water transfer schemes. In other words mover water by pipeline and channel transfers from the wetter areas to the dry zone. The Mahaweli River basin project initiated in the 1970’s  was intended to take water from the mountains to the dry zone; and it does. But is that enough? Question rather than answer and obviously any addition to existing arrangements would be expensive. The question is; does the government even consider whether adding to existing water transfer schemes is worth investigating?

4. Innovative methods; harvesting rain water. I found this extract printed in the Daily Mirror 2016;

Water that falls on a roof of 1,000 sq m in Colombo (average rainfall is 2,000 mm) during a period of one year would be around 2,000 cubic meters (i.e 2 million litres or app. 400,000 gallons). The actual cost of this amount of water would be around Rs. 90,000. The rainwater that falls on the roofs of extensive buildings such as hospitals, schools, housing complexes etc. could be collected in tanks in the premises itself. Water thus collected could be used for numerous domestic purposes. Currently we use chlorinated water suitable for drinking to wash cars, water plants, clean toilets etc. Using rainwater for these activities would reduce water bills, save purified water, which could be used for drinking purposes. Once the collection system is installed there is no additional cost involved except on pumping of collected water to the main water supply system. (Dr CS Weerearatna Daily Mirror October 2016)

source pinterest

This is one simple idea which involves collecting rainfall from roofs and storing it in large tanks either fully or partially underground. The only costs involved are the installation costs plus the cost of pumping the water from the tank. Is this being promoted by the government? It doesn’t seem to be. But these are simple low-tech solutions, so it is surprising that so little is being done.

This article began by charting the development of the latest drought to hit Sri Lanka. Monsoons will fail from time to time, that is a given. Although we understand more now about why droughts  occur  we are powerless to stop them happening. All of which means that when they do occur it is important to have strategies in place to help people cope; to reduce their vulnerability to drought. Sri Lanka is not alone , in facing the dilemma of what to do and how to do it. Water security is an issue throughout South Asia. What this drought has done is bring into sharp focus the need to be planning now for the next drought or Sri Lanka will simply have to go through this crisis all over again.

The South Asian Monsoon; same as it ever was?

What is happening to the Indian Ocean monsoon? Has it become less predictable? Is it becoming affected by global warming? and finally, are droughts in Sri Lanka getting worse as a result?

The monsoon rains are important not only for agriculture in the region but also power generation.  Sri Lanka generates around 40% of its electricity from H.E.P. for example. So getting an understanding of how the monsoon seasons work is really quite important for a whole range of reasons.

a.  In the first of three linked articles I am going to be analysing rainfall and drought data to find out what is actually going on.

b.  The second article will look at what drives the monsoon, in particular the interplay of 3 factors and how they lead to changing patterns of sea surface temperature ( SST ), pressure and wind patterns, and how this affects rainfall. The three phenomena are:

  • The migration of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone ( ITCZ )
  • The El Nino/La Nina events which occur in the Pacific Ocean ( ENSO )
  • The Indian Ocean Dipole ( IOD )

c.  The third article will focus on patterns of drought in Sri Lanka.

Analysing Rainfall: getting the data

For this article I am using rainfall data for 4 stations; Batticaloa, Jaffna, Colombo and Galle. I had data for the period 2000 – 2015 and added to that data for the same locations for the period 1985-90. (I would have liked more ie; 1980 – 2000 but I couldn’t access the data).

So my sample size is  small and skewed towards the later period but it does give some indication of trends.

I chose some simple statistical methods to analyse the data;  I looked at each month in turn  over the 15 year period and calculated for each month and for each station:

  • the mean rainfall
  • standard deviation
  • coefficient of variation; it was this measure that I was really looking for; see below:

The coefficient of variation  ( Cv )is a measure of the spread of data that describes the amount of variability relative to the mean. It is calculated by dividing the standard deviation by the mean.

values close to zero indicate that the the data set shows a lower degree of variability and vice versa; In the results section  I will give just the Cv (not the mean or SD )

So if the data shows a Cv of say 0.50 what that suggests is that for any one year  the actual rainfall received will be in a wide range: 50% above and below the mean. Let’s say average rainfall is 500mm for a month then with a Cv of 0.5  the actual rainfall could be expected to fall within a wide band 250 mm to 750 mm.

Not very predictable.

I carried out the same calculation for the 1985-90 periods so that I could compare the two. I also looked at the pattern of rainfall through the year to see if it changes at all. I wanted to know the following:

  1. How variable is the annual rainfall total from year to year for each station
  2. For any given month how variable is the rainfall total over the 15 year period, and in comparison with the shorter 1985-90 period.
  3. Whether the amount of rainfall during the monsoon periods changing and if so how?
  4. Whether the distribution of monthly rainfall changed significantly over the period; is the monsoon coming earlier or later?

 

The location of the 4 weather stations

 

The monsoon seasons in Sri Lanka;

There are four monsoon seasons in Sri Lanka:

Period Name Comment Regions Affected
March – Mid May First Inter-monsoon (FIM) limited impact
May-July South West Monsoon (SWM) S.W. Winds Heavy rain Southern Coast, South West, West
October- November Second Inter-monsoon (SIM) S.W. winds Heavy rain and tropical cyclones possible South and South West, East coast
November – December North East Monsoon (NEM) North east Winds North and East

That has an impact on the rainfall distribution for different parts of the country;

  1. Colombo and Galle  in the south west of Sri Lanka both show two rainfall peaks during the year coinciding with the SWM and SIM periods.  (not one as I guess many studnets living in Europe ans Notice that the rainfall for SIM is higher on average than for the SWM; not what you would expect from the text books?

                                                                                                           SWM                                            SIM

note: what becomes apparent is that where the monsoon seasons are concerned you cannot generalise; Sri Lanka is different from the sub continent of India. Even within India there are significant departures from the generalised “norm”; so the lesson is not to accept broad generalisations from text books where climate is concerned.

 

  1. Batticaloa is on the east coast and has a different rainfall pattern; one that is dominated by the NEM.

                                                                                                                                                                       NEM

note the vertical scales on the two graphs are not the same; the graphs are there for illustrative purposes only

Of the two, Batticaloa looks like it is the most vulnerable to drought for two reasons;

  1. there is a long dry period from March through to November when temperatures and evapotranspiration rates are high
  2. The east coast is heavily dependent therefore on the NEM; if it fails to produce enough rain in November and December, or fails altogether then there is much less groundwater available for crops following on. Reservoirs (called tanks locally) and rivers dry up.

 

when the rains fail

What the data shows

Looking at the data there are a couple of general points to begin with:

  1. The onset of each monsoon period is pretty much fixed give or take a week or so although there is a suggestion that the SWM is arriving slightly earlier ie late April / early May rather than later in May.
  2. Actual rainfall for any given month varies quite substantially from average values for that month. The coefficient of variation is high.  That is true for both the 1985 period and also the 2000-2015 period. So the monthly averages don’t mean a great deal. Rainfall is variable for any given month and from year to year. From the data I have, I suggest it always has been.
  3. The NEM is a changeable event; some years wetter some years drier., but not predictable
  4. The SWM rainfall is on the increase since 2007
  5. In the North and East the dry season seems to be getting drier, if you add that to a significantly lower monsoon rainfall  total as in 2005 – 8, it can spell big problems for farmers: in particular, drought.

 

Which bring me on to the last point in part one; why is the rainfall so unpredictable? The reason is that there are several factors at play.

  • Rainfall in the Indian Ocean basin is determined by wind direction; which in turn is heavily influenced by the migration of the ITCZ.
  • However it is also influenced by two other phenomena; which are at least partially dependent on one another..
  1. The ENSO or El Nino event
  2. The 3 phases of the Indian Ocean Dipole;

all of which affect sea surface temperatures, and therefore pressure and wind systems.

Simple it isn’t?

As a taster then here is something to be thinking about.

ENSO events:

weak            2004/5, 2006/7

moderate      2002/3, 2009/10

very strong    2015/6

IOD dipole:

positive:         2006, 2012

negative:        2010

You could have a look at the summary of rainfall data above and see where there may be potential match – ups.

Part 2 looks at how it all works

Appendix: Summary  of Results

( for those who are interested in the detail; I have the raw data available on request )

  1. Batticaloa; main rainfall season is the North East Monsoon (NEM)

The average Cv for 1985-90 is 0.67; the average Cv for 2000-2015 is 1.01

However the Cv for the NEM is marginally lower for the period 2000-15

Concentrating on the period 2000-2015:

  1. Cv is higher during March to October (dry season); generally >1.0
  2. Cv falls slightly during the NEM season; between 0.38 and 0.56
  3. overall drier years in 2001, and 2005/6/7:  ? drought ?
  4. July is the driest month and there is a suggestion that July is becoming drier over the period: (2000-07 av. 35.75; 08-15 av 24.7)
  5. The NEM generally starts in November although in 2004,2011,and 2015 it arrived in September
  6. December is the wettest month
  7. NEM rainfall was less for the period 2005-2008 and also 2013
  8. 2011 was the wettest year during the period at 3581mm (80% above average)
  1. Jaffna: main rainfall season is the North East Monsoon  (NEM) plus possibly the Second Inter-monsoon (SIM)

The average Cv for 1985-90 is high; 0.86 and is even higher in 00-15; 0.97

Looking at the period 2000-15

  1. Cv is much higher during drier months; range 0.72 – 1.46 and lower during the NEM at around 0.47
  2. Cv is also lower at 0.44 during October (SIM)
  3. drier years were; 2002/3, 2005/6, 2009, 2012/3
  4. June/July are the driest months and are becoming drier; 2002-7 av 48.5mm, 08-15 av 18.4mm
  5. NEM arrives in November in 12 of 15 years
  6. November is wettest month
  7. NEM rainfall was much lower 2006-8 and 2013/4; 2009/11 NEM rainfall was above average
  8. 2015 was the wettest year in the period at 1839 mm but was only 10% above the average for the NEM

A possible question to investigate is the degree to which Jaffna may be affected by the SIM given its location.

Common to both

  • high variability from year to year especially in the dry season
  • decreasing rainfall in June/July
  • drier 2005-8 and 2013
  1. Colombo; affected by 3 seasons. First Inter Monsoon (FIM), South West Monsoon (SWM), Second Inter Monsoon (SIM); although FIM impact is negligible

at around 0.06 the Cv for both periods (85-90 and 00-15) is high

Looking at the period 2000-15

  1. Cv is lower during both the SWM and the SIM (0.32 and 0.43)
  2. drier years overall in 2004 and 2011
  3. No significantly drier years apart from 2011 which had a lower SIM
  4. January and February showing decreasing rainfall; example Jan av. 00-07 av 108.4, 08-15 av 75.1
  5. July is the driest month October/November (SIM) the wettest
  6.  September marks SIM arrival except 2005 and 2011
  7. April/May consistently marks start of SWM
  8. signs that onset of SWM  shows higher average: 00-07 av 195mm, 08-15 av 371mm not quite so marked for SIM
  9. 2010 was the wettest year at 3370mm (43% above average)
  1. Galle: affected by 3 seasons. First Inter Monsoon (FIM), South West Monsoon (SWM), Second Inter Monsoon (SIM); although FIM impact is negligible

In comparison with Colombo the Cv’s are slightly lower than for Colombo but still >0.5 for both periods but there is no significant difference between the Cv values for the two time periods.

Looking at the period 2000-15

  1. Cv is does not drop during SWM although it does so for the SIM
  2. 2001/2 and 2013 were drier years,
  3. SWM shows increasing average 00-07 av 162.3 mm; 08-15 av 268.1 with similar increase for May; The SIM data does not show a trend betond a slightly drier October and a slightly wetter November
  4. January shows a decreasing average from 00-07 av 116mm to  08-15 av 82mm
  5. January is the driest month, October is the wettest month
  6. October marks the arrival of the SIM
  7. April/ May marks the arrival of the SWM
  8.  As with Colombo signs are that the onset of the SWM is bring heavier rainfall; 00-07 av for April was 162mm for May was 241mm and for 08-15 av for April increased to 268mm and 298mm respectively.
  9. 2007 and 2010 were the wettest years (32% above average)

Common to Colombo and Galle

  • rainfall is decreasing in January
  • rainfall is increasing in April; onset of SWM is bringing heavier rainfall
  • suggestion that monsoon is getting earlier

 

 

 

 

 

Colombo garbage mountain collapse: time for the government to act

Colombo generates well over 1000 tons of garbage every day most of which ends up at the Meethotumulla rubbish dump on the outskirts of the city., because until now there has been no alternative site for waste disposal in the city (if you discount the canals that is; which many residents seem to see as an alternative waste dump)

STOP PRESS: action at last

On April 14th a large section of the dump collapsed onto the surrounding settlement resulting in an estimated 28 deaths, ( although this figure may well rise) displacing a further 625 people and extensively damaging 145 houses.

The sheer scale of the dump, which dominates the skyline around should have been enough to warn authorities of the need to take action.

 

source: Hiru News

 The dump contains an estimated 24 million tons of garbage (made up of all types of waste) rising to upwards 90 metres and covers around 7 hectares. It dominates the entire area.

In May 2016 the dump had to be closed for 10 days due to extensive flooding and the Colombo Municipal Council was forced to obtain a court order to remove 3000 tons of accumulated waste to the Piliyandala site to the south of the city.

Questions:

  • Why was the  site allowed to be imposed on the low income residents of Meethotumulla in the first place? It wouldn’t happen in Colombo 7 would it?
  • Why despite continued protest and concerns expressed by local residents over health issues and the instability of the dump, has nothing been done?
  • If the Aruwakkala site is not viable, what contingency plans exist?

On 15th April, The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka) published a scathing attack on the authorities, by the pressure group; Decent Lanka 2015,  in the wake of this latest disaster the headline of which reads: “Dump, dumber, dumbest” The article lays the blame squarely at the feet of local and national politicians: please click on this link and read the article:

Key quotes (source Daily Mirror. lk)

“This tragedy has been in the making for over eight years now due to the callous and irresponsible attitudes of both the political leadership and the bureaucracy.”  The article lists a whole catalogue of broken promises and failure to act an is worth a read through if only to re-inforce a belief that politicians are simply not interested in the lives of ordinary people”
 “This is all about how public policy is shaped without public concerns taken into account. It is all about planning without needs assessments and professional and technical inputs.  It is all about a dumb and corrupt bureaucracy tying up with equally ignorant and corrupt politicians in finding the largest source of funding as first priority to draw up proposals thereafter.”
A little bit of theory

The relevance of water in this context, is that percolating water destabilises loosely compacted mounds of garbage and slope failure is always going to be the most likely outcome. The surprise is that this disaster has taken the authorities by surprise. It was a disaster waiting to happen.

The garbage dump would have become saturated by water percolating down through the unconsolidated waste.Therefore, the garbage and the mound would have become “top heavy”. Water seeping out at the base of the tip would have further de-stabilised the base of the mound, and the slope failed.

To quote American Geophysical Union (AGU): blog Dave Petley

“It is undeniable that this site was unsafe.  The garbage mound is clearly too high and too steep, inviting a rotational failure.  With houses so close to the toe of the slope the hazards were severe.. This is another case in which we know and understand the hazards, but fail to manage them.  The results are once again tragic.”

This photo taken by the Sri Lankan Airforce shows clearly what happened. The base of the slop failed and half of the mound fell away onto the houses below.

The question is not how this disaster could have been prevented BUT:

  1. Why the dump was allowed to grow to become this size in the first place?
  2. Given the continuing complaints and disquiet about the site why has nothing been done since the last protests by local residents in 2016?

I found this extract in Ceylon Today:

The Ministry of Megapolis and the Western Province Chief Minister are at loggerheads over the Meethotamulla Garbage Dump, says Provincial Council Member from Kolonnawa Saliya Wickremesinghe. He noted that last May Western Province Chief Minister Isura Devapriya had promised a solution, which involved negotiations with a British company that provided waste management solutions. Speaking to Ceylon Today, Wickremesinghe added that Devapriya then promised to commence work at the site within six months from last May. So far, the people of Meethotamulla had not witnessed any progress.

A case of “fiddling while Rome burns” to borrow a metaphor.

It would be unfair though,  to blame the lack of a solution on the current government alone. This dump dates back to days of the previous regime. So both should shoulder the responsibility along with Colombo Municipal Council who administer the site. The fact is that nothing has been done to make this dump safe, and so the worst fears of the local residents have been realised.

What this latest episode does do, however, is to bring into sharp focus the absence of any coherent solution to Colombo’s garbage crisis. In another blog I examined one possible solution; the Aruwakkala project. However, even this proposed solution is not straightforward and raises significant environmental concerns over its viability; click on this link to article

the proposed site for the garbage dump close to Puttalam

Currently there are no secure and safe Sanitary Landfill sites in Sri Lanka and incineration is not considered to be viable due to the high moisture content of much of the waste.

So to quote a phrase: “what to do?”

It is an inconvenient truth that sanitary landfill sites will need to be found for the growing volume of urban waste. If the government’s plans for Megapolis in Western province materialise then even more waste is likely to be generated in future. Planning needs to begin now!

Perhaps the authorities could look again at incineration plants but they come with their own “health warnings” in terms of pollutant gases escaping into the atmosphere

Otherwise the accent has to be on generating less waste and recycling more of the waste that is produced. Some community recycling schemes have been implemented amongst middle and lower income communities, for example: Community Based Solid Waste Management Project in Matale and Ratnapura Cities undertaken by the Colombo based NGO Sevanatha (www.sevanatha.org.lk). The fact is that:

  • 60% of wase is bio-degradeable., and can produce compost, biogas and fertiliser
  • metal waste, glass waste and paper waste can be recycled

However, it doesn’t get done, partly because communities don’t buy in to these projects unless they can see the potential for some financial gain. Partly because the political will is not there.

And there are other constraints:

Issues working against effective waste collection and disposal
  1. Local authorities don’t have resources/skills to develop effective waste management policies
  2. Poor on-site labour management; inefficient working practices
  3. Meeting costs of operations; no provision for recycling, separation, composting in local authority budgets L
  4. Low returns from recycled waste make recycling unprofitable without subsidies
  5. Bureaucratic delays slow everything down

It is unlikely that one solution alone will be enough to deal with what is fast becoming a crisis. Responsible land fill, incineration and recycling are all aspects of the solution. What it does need is for politicians to focus on finding a solutions rather than dispute with one another. It is all very well to develop ambitious plans for a brighter tomorrow for Sri Lanka; viz the Megapolis project (see elsewhere in this blog); however, they need to get the simple basics of good environmental management right first.

Required Reading: this excellent article published on 22/04/17 in the Daily Mirror
Gone to Waste

Some useful references

Climbing out of the garbage dump : Envirtonmental Foundation

Sevanatha: http://www.sevanatha.org.lk

The headline photo: source Sri Lankan Air Force

The human – elephant conflict: does it have to be like this?

Every year on average over 200 elephants are killed and 60 to 80 people lose their lives as aresult of elephant attacks. With maybe no more than 5000 to 6000 elephants left in the wild in Sri Lanka time seems to be running out for the Sri Lankan wild elephant.

At one time wild elephants could be found in most parts of the island. Now they are confined mostly to the north-central region of the island. They were driven out by hunting; for example on the Horton Plains where elephants once used to be plentiful, as well as the land clearances which created the vast tea and rubber estates.

Elephants and People; the old days

The traditional agriculture of the intermediate and dry zones is called Chena. It is a version of slash and burn. Chena cultivation is dependent on the rainfall, so at the onset of the monsoon, a patch of forest was cleared and cultivated for about 4 to 5 months and then abandoned. This then created low scrub/ woodland ( secondary regeneration) which is the habitat the elephants prefer

So, traditional Chena cultivation was compatible with maintaining the elephant population and, in fact, meant that people and elephants didn’t come into contact as often as they do now. The elephants simply moved on to abandoned and regenerating forest when the farmers moved on to open up another patch of forest.

What has changed?

The extension of sedentary agriculture in the centre and east of the country which began in earnest in the 1970’s was the single change that brought elephants and people into close contact and which has put the elephants at  risk of extinction.

The main causal factor is the  Mahaweli River Development Scheme (an irrigation scheme) Aimed at agricultural development it was begun in the 1960’s but accelerated after 1977.

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The Mahaweli scheme

The project had a number of inter-related aims:

  • to reduce growing population pressure and landlessness in the wet zone
  • to expand rice production and reduce dependence on imports
  • to develop hydro electricity to power new industrial development
  • opening up new employment opportunities to landless farmers

Settlers were encouraged onto the newly irrigated lands with the promise of land, a house and irrigation water. Apart from rice, the staple of Sri Lanka, farmers were encouraged to diversify into sugar cane, soya, corn, vegetables, fruit and cash crops.

The area under rice cultivation almost doubled to 87,000 hectares whilst rice production rose from 164 million tonnes p.a. to 471m tonnes p.a.

Land under other crops also doubled in area as a result of the  programme. However large areas of secondary forest were lost and the traditional chena system was largely  abandoned because it was not profitable.

and you have to question why large areas around Udawalawe in the South have been turned over to sugar cane production and at what cost? Surely a crop that Sri Lanka doesn’t really need; ask the 20% or so who are type 2 diabetics for example…

And the result:

  • the traditional elephant ranges have been reduced in size and become fragmented.
  • the traditional migration routes have beenblocked off to the elephants
  • with the traditional source of food for elephants (secondary forest) now not so readily available to elephants,  their food supply diminishing and migration routes blocked the elephants raid villages for food which is how the conflict is created.

The Farmer’s story

 Kalawagala is a small agricultural village with approximately 200 + families and a population of around 1200. The farm economy is centered on padi (or rice) cultivation, vegetables and fruit.

Hinnimama is typical; along with his family he farms around 3 acres and grows padi rice plus melon, pumpkin, okra, sweet corn, green grains long beans sesame and brinjal. Some farmers may also keep a few buffalo from which they sell curd.

 

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Apart from rice which is irrigated all the rest rely on the seasonal monsoon.

He would expect to grow crops in three cycles through the year (which he calls Chena) ; the more water demanding crops first and so on, and make around 100,000 rupees plus sales of rice surplus; each cycle yields around 30000 rupees dependent on amount of rain.

For Hinnimama there are 2 problems:

  1. When rainfall is not enough his yields take a tumble, and his income falls.
  2. Elephant herds invade the village land on a regular basis;  one raid can completely decimate his crop leading to serious loss of income

He told me that:

  • in the last 2 years alone 8 villagers have been killed as they attempted to drive marauding elephants away from their fields
  • groups of elephants (ranging from 2 or 3 to over a dozen) raid the village fields most nights
  • when they come for food elephants will completely destroy a farmers’ crops with the loss of the potential revenue; one night of destruction costs LKR 30,000 or more: this would be the equivalent of 1/3rd of the annual revenue

There are electric fences surrounding the village, which are supposed to keep out the elephants, BUT the elephants kick them over causing the electric current to fail and they walk through the gaps. (one ranger told me he had even seen an elephant jump a fence). The fact that the fences are poorly maintained doesn’t help Hinnimama to have much confidence that the Department of Wildlife Conservation (who are responsible for managing the situation) can do much to help him.

As a result, Hinnimama sleeps out in temporary shelters on his fields most nights. He has little choice and he feels he has no alternative but to drive away the elephants with whatever means he can employ. These methods can include shouting, using firecrackers or home made explosives, raising the voltage on the electric fences, poisoning, digging pits and possibly (although he wouldn’t say so) shooting the elephants.

The elephants story

Recent research has uncovered a lot more information about the Sri Lankan elephant:

  • Elephants don’t migrate far either seasonally or annually and their ranges are small in size (roughly 50 – 150 km2 on average).
  • Elephants follow the same migration routes (elephant corridors) year after year.
  • Ranges and corridors are well established and pre date human settlement.
  • Ranges don’t always match up with protected areas, however. Around 70% of elephants live outside protected areas.

z_p-15-homogeneous-02

from the Sunday Times

To accommodate there elephants the number and size e of protected areas needs to be much bigger

  • Elephants prefer open low canopy woodland and grassland and disturbed habitats such as abandoned Chena lands which are the result of clearance and secondary plant succession.
  • A single wild elephant consumes approximately 150 kg of food per day. A hundred elephants would require 15,000 kg of food per day, and a large area of woodland every day.

unspecified-5

elephant country

Elephants were well established before commercial farming pushed into the interior. In simple terms they were there first. However, they have been squeezed out of their traditional “range” lands. Their alternatives have been shrinking every year.

  1. Between 1948 and 1975 as a result of the Mahaweli Project; 1/3rd of the natural forest was lost due to clearance for agriculture. The depletion of the elephants main food source increased pressure on remaining natural food supplies to the extent that the elephants were forced to search elsewhere for food.
  2. A combination of fragmentation of habitat and blocked migration routes have created major pressures on the elephant population. Land was allocated to settlers by politicians (seeking electoral advantage), which blocked the traditional elephant migration routes or corridors.
  3. Increased numbers of cattle and water buffalo have further reduced the amount of grassland available to elephants.
  4. The disappearance of the traditional Chena (shifting cultivation) system will mean that through natural succession, habitat in many of the protected areas will become progressively less able to support high densities of elephants because they thrive on secondary forest created by Chena cultivation.
  5. An inadvertent introduction of the plant lantana camara into Sri Lanka has had an almost catastrophic impact on the vegetation in Udawalawe, one of the protected “elephant homelands”. The plant is toxic to elephants and highly invasive. It is currently replacing the endemic vegetation at a rapid rate resulting in significant habitat and disastrous food loss for the elephant population.

The net result has been that elephants and villagers are increasingly competing for the same space with disastrous results all round.

Managing the Human – Elephant conflict

So far the main response has been to try to keep elephants and farmers apart. This has been attempted in the following ways:

  1. The irrigated and resettled lands have been protected from elephants with electric fences.
  2. Protected areas and national parks have been created for the elephant population. Elephants living outside of the protected areas are captured and relocated into the protected areas where possible.

Problems

  1. However, so far this strategy hasn’t worked too well. Elephants break down fences which results in major problems for villagers. The fact that those fences are poorly maintained is a major source of frustration to the villagers.

unspecified-3

a fence pushed over by an elephant

  1. Nor does moving captured the elephants into the protected areas doesn’t make ecological sense; in effect this is a policy of creating elephant concentration camps. This is because:
  • Protected areas can support only a certain number of elephants (the carrying capacity), which is determined by the amount of resources such as food and water available for elephants. Eventually there will be too many elephants in each “safe zone”
  • Translocating a large number of elephants that normally range outside protected areas into protected areas just adds to the elephant numbers, and increases the pressure on the habitat leading to habitat destruction.
  • Any attempt at managing protected areas to provide more food for more elephants would require a vast amount of funds and resources that would have to be spent indefinitely. It would also result in a massive loss of biodiversity, as a large number of fauna and flora, many of them endemics, require relatively undisturbed forest. Simply put it is not sustainable
  • In any case most elephants range outside of the protected areas or maybe their ranges are partly in and partly out of protected areas. So you can move them into a protected area but the chances are that they will take off at some point and go back to the areas they are used to ranging in.

The Main Point:

Translocation of elephants into protected areas keeping them there and finding enough food for them is just not sustainable; a new approach is needed.

New Management for Old

One such approach is suggested by The Centre for Conservation and Research in Sri Lanka:

  • Manage the protected areas and their elephant populations as the core of future elephant conservation.
  • Manage areas outside protected areas so that together with the protected areas, they form a contiguous landscape for elephants.

They argue that Management of outside areas can be achieved by regulating Chena cultivation, so that:

  • Traditional cycling regimes are preserved and conversion to permanent cultivation is prevented.
  • Providing facilities to chena farmers, so that they derive a direct conservation benefit from elephants being outside protected areas, and costs of having elephants in their area, such as crop depredation, are offset.”
They argue further that “such a conservation strategy, … will benefit both elephants and humans, and will ensure the sustenance of a healthy elephant population in Sri Lanka, for the future.”

This means going back to a form of slash and burn; Chena. But Chena farmers would need to be financially supported and that does not appear to be a likely outcome. In any case would the government be able to persuade the second/third generation farmer/ settlers to accept this? It seems unlikely.

The Sri Lanka Wildlife Conservation Society (SLWCS) takes a more practical view.

The idea is to engage with people at the grassroots level:

Mission: “to build capacity, foster leadership and empower citizens to support sustainable, long term conservation success.”

They adopt a range of innovative approaches which are all aimed at helping the local people live in harmony, not in conflict with elephants, and which are sustainable.

Here is a summary of some of their projects:

  • Electric Fence Intrusion Alert System (eleAlert) monitors fences remotely and give early warning of elephant intrusion to villagers and fence damage to crews who can go and repair the breach.
  • An electric fence maintenance team was established in the 2,300-year-old Buddhist Temple, historic Somawathiya Chaitiya, in the North Central Province.
  • in Wasgamuwa, SLWCS formed a community organization to promote the cultivation of oranges. Elephants do not eat citrus, therefore farmers are less likely to lose their crops to elephant raids.; see Project Orange
  • A number of community based organizations for human elephant conflict mitigation, home garden development, and agro-forestry, have been established at Lahugala, Pottuvil and Panama in the Eastern Province.
  • microfinance is being made available to communities to enable them to diversify away from farming into other activities.
  • encouraging improved methods of dairy farming to raise yields not numbers of cattle which would reduce the demand on grassland resources
  • Ele bus: Saving elephants while helping people is at the heart of the SLWCS’ brand new “Ele-friendly Bus project.” The bus will buffer school children, farmers and other pedestrians from elephants (and vice versa) by providing safe transportation along a busy rural roadway that transects one of the region’s most important, ancient elephant corridors. In turn, fewer negative human-elephant encounters will occur, helping to keep people safe and elephants alive.

In one of the newer projects they are experimenting with beehive fences, where beehives are strung out along fence boundaries. Elephants stay away from bees and so the hope is that a network of such fences will deter elephants form invading farmers land

see: http://elephantsandbees.com/sri-lanka-beehive-fence-progress/

Summary

The future for elephants in Sri Lanka is far from secure. There are signs in the media and in various pronouncements from the authorities that the threat to the Sri Lankan elephant is now being taken increasingly seriously.

Tourism can  play a part. Around 20% of tourists visit Sri Lanka hoping to see elephants in the wild. What would the loss of the wild elephant do to the tourist trade? What does the decimation of the elephant population do for the image of Sri Lanka?

The key to protecting the elephant is a multi layered strategy;

  • collecting more date on elephant behaviour is needed to try to better understand elephant movement
  • strict conservation zones can be useful but only as one tool in the box
  • the adoption of the practices being trialled by the excellent Sri Lanka Wildlife Conservation Society
  • giving the villagers a stake in the future of the elephant by becoming more actively involved in elephant conservation; that also means giving the villagers a greater stake in tourism development and a greater say in how that management should take place.

If villagers can be helped to see the economic sense of maintaining the elephant population (I think arguments about biodiversity don’t cut much ice), then this may be the way forward in terms of putting a stop to the pointless and very sad loss of life we are seeing today.

Stop Press

Report from the Sri Lanka Wildlife Conservation Society is worth a real close look; check it out now

 

Short term lets on the rise in Sri lanka: is this good for the tourism industry?

The informal tourism sector is growing in Sri Lanka and Hiran Cooray Chairman of the Tourist hotels of Sri Lanka for one thinks it’s a good thing.  ( see  report in the Daily Mirror )

So do I.

By his reckoning 2/5th of tourists coming to Sri Lanka now stay in rented apartments, villas and homestay accommodation many of which are rented out via organisations such as Homestay.com Trip Advisor, AirB&B and the like.

Benefits

So why is this a good thing? Let’s start with the positive side.

  • Money paid by tourists goes directly to local people;

“Tourists staying within the local communities pass the revenue directly to the bottom of the income pyramid, fast-tracking grass root level economic development.” Hiran Cooray

  • Visiting tourists get to mix with local people rather than stay cooped up in hotels full of foreigners and they get to experience and enjoy true Sri Lankan hospitality; plus they get to hang out away from traditional tourist areas.
  • Because tourist are using existing facilities there is no additional strain on local authority services
  • The emergence of the informal rental market actually expands what Sri Lanka has to offer to tourists.

Not everyone (Chinese apart maybe) wants to stay in an hotel. A significant number of tourists like to do their own thing, explore local areas eat when they want in and around local Sri Lankans, and so on. They don’t want to be “trapped” in a cramped and possibly quite expensive hotel room. They like the space and informality that the informal sector can offer and when you can stay in an apartment in Havelock City for example.. at a much lower cost.. well why wouldn’t you?

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Havelock City; example of apartment

doing away with the negatives :

  • Unlike the major developments which are springing up around the coast from Kalpitiya to Mirissa and down the east coast; there is no negative environmental impact.
  • There are no major costs to be borne by local communities, economic, environmental or social
  • Homestay and the rental market place no extra strain on stretched local authority services such as electricity, water supply and refuse disposal (although the latter doesn’t seem to be working that well)
Costs
  • owners of rented accommodation don’t pay tourist taxes
  • they are not registered; no-one knows how many there are
  • there is no real quality control beyond what TripAdvisor and AIR B&B can exert
Is it a threat?

So does  the hotel sector needs to worry? No of course not. Sri Lanka can offer world class tourist accommodation for those who want it; plus Colombo is set become a signicant business hub in South Asia so the growth of business tourism which depends on quality hotels is almost assured.

It’s just that not every one can afford the prices that some city centre hotels charge in Colombo for example.

(I could add from my experience that for the money sometimes the service could be a whole lot better, some hotel staff could be a little less “up themselves” but that is for another blog.)

Where it is possible to agree with the Hotels Association is that it is not a level playing field because the informal sector are mainly unregistered and do not have to pay the tourist tax and development levy paid by the hotel chains.

True but the owners do pay local and regional taxes; adding the other costs could simply cause them to raise their rentals to a level where they would not get business so thinking about applying these extra costs or banning the advertising of short term rental and homestay on the web (as has happened in New York for example) is not a step to be taken lightly.

That said there is a case for regulation to be introduced in homestay and private rentals to ensure quality and value for money.

Research needed

In the meantime there is very little data available on the growth of the informal sector at present and maybe it would be worth conducting research so that all concerned know what it is they are discussing.

So time to start asking questions;

  • Where do informal sector tourists stay ? In Colombo? Western Province? Or coastal areas? Maybe it would be worth finding out.

To judge by the Air B&B site much of it is in and around Colombo. If that is so then is it a bad thing? Getting more people to visit Colombo and stay for longer, not necessarily in the city centre can only be good for the economy.

  • Who are these type of  tourists; where do they come from?
  • How long do they stay?
  • What do they do, where do they go what do they visit?
  • Why do they choose rental/homestay?
  • What about the owners/renters: who are they? What accommodation is being used and why?
  • How much money is it making for the owners?

As I wrote in an earlier blog; A Paradise Lost ; see https://geosrilanka.wordpress.com/2015/06/16/sri-lanka-tourism-is-it-just-a-case-of-re-branding/, my belief is that Sri Lankan tourism needs a balanced portfolio of investment; homestay and apartment rentals are.   a part of that, (as is mass tourism) because it has the value of bringing tourists much closer to an understanding of Sri Lankan life and culture.

After all, there is nothing better than hanging out around Water’s Edge on a Saturday night along with the thousands of families who come to chill, enjoy the street food , and relax over an affordable beer maybe.. and you don’t get to do that at The Cinnamon Grand

Boardwalk

 

Colombo floods; getting relief to the victims

As flood waters start to recede  they have been replaced by a different flood; the flood of blame and recrimination.  A number of journalists have been quick to lay blame in several areas, including the meteorological office, the disaster management centre and the government. However, whilst journalists and politicians wasted time looking for scapegoats others got on with a much more important job; getting help and aid to the flood victims

The government would have it that the flood  was the result of all those poor people who built on marshland.  As a result they have said that they will be removing upwards of 2500 families from unauthorised sites; (see Sunday Times 12th June) This is either ignorance or political sophistry.

“The squatter families will not be offered compensation or alternative locations, Sri Lanka Land Reclamation and Development Corporation (SLRDC) Chairmnan W.M.A.S. Iddawala told the Sunday Times. He said that in a survey carried out after last month’s devastating floods, the corporation had identified the squatter families which should be evicted.” Sunday Times

While some properties may have inhibited the flow of flood water in and around the canals they did not cause the flood.

Building on marshland does not cause a flood. It might put people in harm’s way, but it doesn’t cause a flood to happen.The sheer volume of water falling on an unprotected catchment is what caused the flood.

So why the evictions? We can only guess

  • it is always convenient to have a scapegoat to divert attention away from the failings of the government and its officials
  • they will not have to pay compensation to these families
  • it is part of a broader government strategy of relocating families in unauthorised settlements into the government built apartment complexes currently springing up around the city
A vulnerable population

A good place to start is to define what vulnerable means in this context. Two aspects need to be borne in mind;

  • the immediate physical vulnerability to the danger of flood
  • the longer term vulnerability to the economic impacts of the flood

Why were so many people exposed to this devastating flood and its longer term impacts? A  number of factors contributed to render the population vulnerable;

  • The areas around Colombo are low-lying and flood prone
  • there are no effective flood defences in place to control the Kelani Ganga
  • Suburban population densities are high quite close to the main river and its tributaries

Figure-2-Population-density-in-Colombo-district

Population densities in the Colombo area source: researchgate

  • Housing density is high and many of the side lanes are narrow which would later hamper rescue and relief efforts
  • Most households are in the  lower middle to low income bracket and not able to withstand the financial impact of losses due to the flood
  • How many had adequate insurance cover? None; as one person told me; “it isn’t in the Sri Lankan culture to purchase home insurance”
Flood Impact

In all more than 150,000 people were temporarily displaced by the flood. Although relatively few homes were completely lost many have suffered water damage, small shops kades and bakehouses have lost their stocks of goods to sell, livelihoods have been wrecked, many have lost all their possessions in the flood and will find it hard t replace them.

This is Imi’s story. She lives with her mother and infirm grandparents in Welivita, part of Kaduwela to the north-east of the city. This is what the flood meant to families such as hers.

Disaster Relief

The Disaster Management Centre should have been the body to co-ordinate flood relief efforts. However, at the height of the flood it was under 2 metres of water; not ideal. They did warn of the impending flood and they did issue evacuation alerts and to be fair other measures were put in place once the flood struck:

  • 1500 military personnel were organised into 81 teams and deployed to the flood areas, as were the police
  • boats were provided to rescue trapped households from roofs and upper stories
  • safe areas were identified and evacuation centres set up
  • rescued families were transported to the evacuation sites where there were emergency rations, blankets etc

However, good as this was there doesn’t seem to have been much coordination of the relief effort.  The President did instruct the local officials the Grama Niladahri to visit all affected areas and people in their districts to get an idea of what the problems were, and who was in most need of help but according to this Sunday Times report the response was at best patchy.

and there were problems:

  • some evacuation centres were overrun and became heavily congested
  • the emergency relief packages were pitifully small and not everyone got them
  • there was a mismatch in terms of what was needed and what was given; victims urgently needed clothing, sanitary wear and medicines; they didn’t receive much of any of these
  • there were not enough boats available to rescue people
  • some houses, especially the less accessible, were never visited by the rescuers
  • calls for help made to the disaster centres went unanswered in some cases. For many help never came.

Questions have also been raised about where all the foreign aid went because it certainly didn’t reach many of the victims if newspaper reports are to be believed. This from the Sunday Times 12th June:

“Three weeks after floods ravaged many of the areas adjoining the Kelani river communities are waiting for the government machinery to move in to provide aid, rebuild houses and provide other relief. Flood victims stranded in Kelaniya, Kelanimulla and Angoda areas, this week, claimed there was no responsible officer at grassroots level to monitor the process of distributing dry rations to the destitute.”

Local Volunteers

In the vacuum left by what some see as government ineptitude local volunteer groups sprung up in different districts across the city. One such group was the Welivita volunteers. Initially they came together to help their friend Imi (see above) However, they could see the need for a wider effort and within in a short time they:

  • organised themselves into a coherent group with a steering commitee
  • created a facebook page for the group
  • visited the area to get an idea of the extent of the problem
  • went to the local Grama Niladhari (government official) to identify the families most in need
  • launched an online campaign on facebook for donations
  • put out regular bulletins on the progress of donations
  • itemised a list of essential items for relief packs and school packs; all costed out; each cost around 5000 rupees and was paid for by donations. (the value of government aid packs was 1500 rupees and wasnt necessarily what people wanted or needed)
  • collected the packs and then distributed to needy families
  • when that was done they embarked on a clean up of Imi’s house and the areas nearby

They did this in the space of two weeks: and you can check out their page Welivita Volunteers where you will get full details on what they did, how they did it and also a good selection of photos which graphically illustrate their work;

So the point about their work was that it was:

  • carefully structured and organised throughout
  • bureaucracy was kept at a minimum
  • targeted at those in most need
  • delivered quickly and without fuss into the hands of the needy
  • not expensive
Comment

After the 2004 Tsunami the people were told that in future the government would be ready; those scenes of chaos in 2004 could not happen again..that does not seem to be the case. Looking through recent newspaper articles it would seem that the government effort raises more questions than answers;

  1. Where did all the emergency aid go? Many complain that they have not seen any of it.
  2. Journalists slate the government for complacency and inactivity
  3. Why was the Disaster Management Centre located in a flood prone area? It is worth noting that millions of rupees worth of telecommunications equipment stored at the DMC has also been ruined in the flood
  4. Where was the co-ordination necessary to mount a coherent disaster management plan.. indeed where was the plan?

After events like this one governments all over the world (certainly in the UK) drone on about lessons to be learned.. evidence is that those lessons are rarely learned. However, there are some take away points:

  1. Maybe it is time to look at flood prevention especially in the upper Kelani basin. It will be expensive in the short run but will save in the longer term. Have a look at flood prevention schemes on the Los Angeles and San Gabriel rivers, in Los Angeles, USA for an example. flood retention dams in the upper course, flood spreading zomes in the lower course, channel improvements, engineering of the channel of the kelaqni, raising the river banks.. these could all be looked at.
  2. By all means give people alternatives to living in marshy areas and on the banks of the Kelani, but these should be viable alternatives and in consultation with those living in those areas.
  3. A proper disaster management contingency plan for flooding needs to be in place. Military personnel need to be trained. Boats need to be available.
  4. There needs to be someone of ministerial rank in charge of flood relief; clearly the DMC is not up to the job.
  5. There needs to be some recognition that  roles need to be specialised.

There are two stages to a flood event like this:

Initially the need is for search and rescue; the military are best placed to do this; I suspect that if they had been in charge the rescue operation would have been properly coordinated and way more efficient. They have the helicopters to overfly flooded areas and provide first hand intelligence to direct the rescue effort plus they have a command network that would be effective in these situations

  • Once rescue is underway the focus is on relief and the government could learn a great deal from the work of the local volunteers; how they organised themselves, targeted relief on those in greatest need, paid heed to what the victims needed and so on.
  • They might also consider how they might utilise the power of social media to better direct their efforts.
  • They could think of building on the huge amount of good will shown by local people to the victims by setting up local part time or volunteer flood relief groups who could be trained as a first line of the relief effort and mobilised at times of flood.

One thing is for sure; the river will flood again whether people are living on marshland or not. The question as ever, is will the government be ready?

Mini Hydro Schemes; threatening Sinharaja

 

In Sri Lanka large hydro power potential has been fully utilised. There is no space to add in more plus the existing schemes are multi purpose, providing necessary irrigation water especially to the semi dry and dry zones. And this places a further limit on the capacity of Sri Lanka to generate additional electricity from major H.E.P. schemes

However, there are opportunities for the development of privately owned small scale or mini hydro schemes which could add power to the national grid in Sri Lanka. The problem is that  these schemes are causing concern amongst environmentalists because they block streams and threaten the environment of fresh water fish and fragile riverine ecosystems.

The Energy situation

The Sri Lankan government has ambitious plans to achieve high rates of economic growth in the coming years. However, Sri Lanka barely generates enough energy to satisfy the demands both domestic and industrial right now. To make matters worse, existing power supply has been plagued by disruptions and power outages in the last few months.

Since coming online the thermal power station at Norochalai on the east coast has had several reported breakdowns including a fire, a leak, a trip and an instance where generation exceeded design levels, causing a shutdown. The most recent shutdown came in March when an explosion in a stepdown transformer caused an island-wide power outage.

It doesn’t help levels of confidence in the electricity generation system to read Sri Lanka’s deputy minister for power and renewable energy, Ajith Perera, saying that the plant had been built with “outdated” technologies and substandard materials.

Add in the continuing debate over whether the next thermal power station at Sampur should be built and it  is understandable that the authorities would consider  additions to the grid from  privately owned hydro electric power generation which is both clean and renewable.

Enter the mini hydroscheme

A mini hydro project works by having water in a river diverted to a powerhouse by means of a dam built across the flow. This water rotates a turbine and flows back downstream. Not all the water can be diverted: a part has to be let flow naturally in the river, according to law.

Mini-hydro-power-gra

reprinted with permission by Malaka Rodrigo

Dam-built-on-Anda-Dola-c-Rainforest-Protectors

reprinted with permission by Malaka Rodrigo

The advantages to the state seem obvious.

  • The south west of the island is an area of high rainfall so projects such as this provide a clean and renewable source of energy
  • the state is not involved in any outlay of funds but can simply opt to buy in power from the private company
  • the scale of the development is small which should minimise environmental impact

However, this form of clean energy comes at a cost;

  • alterations to the river flow have an impact  on the physical hydrology of the river changing the volume and velocity of flow downstream, changing the river load and so impacting river channel processes, often increasing erosion downstream of the dam
  • changes to the river have an ecological impact on both flora and fauna
  • there is often damage to the environment from trucks and during construction destroying pristine environments and habitats

Add to that the question of whether the state should be reliant on private companies for additional power generation when their  main motive in building these schemes is arguably profit above any other consideration, including the environment

Some tea estates up in the hills already operate their own private schemes providing power to the tea factories. Theses schemes are generally not taking place in environmentally sensitive areas and are not the focus of this article. What is of concern is applications to develop mini hydro schemes in environmentally sensitive areas such the Sinharaja rainforest reserve.

Case Study

The proposal to build a  mini hydro plant at a waterfall and beauty spot is posing a real threat to Athwelthota river; home to 39 freshwater species 19 of them endemic to Sri Lanka.

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source Youtube

The Athwelthota is one of many rivers that flows out from the northern flanks of the Sinharaja rain forest reserve in southern Sri Lanka. Sinharaja is a world heritage site, and the country’s last viable area of primary tropical rainforest. More than 60% of the trees are endemic and many of them are considered rare. There is much endemic wildlife, especially birds, but the reserve is also home to over 50% of Sri Lanka’s endemic species of mammals and butterflies, as well as many kinds of insects, reptiles and rare amphibians.

forest reserve.tiff

source Google sites

Athwelthota is a paradise for freshwater fish, with a number of species discovered in this unique habitat. The CEJ and the Wildlife Conservation Society of Galle (WCSG) have published a poster showing the indigenous fish that could be endangered by the proposed mini-hydro project in Pilithudu ella, Morapitiya-Athwelthota.

If a mini hydro plant is built, some believe that  the change in flow will be a death sentence for many species living in this micro-habitat,

  • Different fish need different micro-habitats, . For example, the gal padiya or sucker fish lives deep in fast-flowing water; some fish species live in relatively calm water while others prefer fast-flowing water.
  • But if part of a stream is diverted the habitat downstream changes and fish will be affected even though a percentage of water might be allowed to flow freely.
  • With flow changes the PH value of water too could change and very sensitive species could become affected.
  • Some fish migrate upstream to breed and when the stream is blocked this movement is disrupted,

In Athwelthota, 39 freshwater species have been recorded, 20 of them endemic to Sri Lanka.

Most of the mini-hydro projects are being constructed in the biodiversity rich wet zone, so the damage they cause is actually worse than with the large dams,  Not only the fish but other animals such as amphibians and freshwater crabs too are affected.

Athwelthota is also home to Sri Lanka’s only aquatic orchid. Near a waterfall lies a special “spray zone” full of water vapour and this special habitat could be totally lost,

Overall 37 projects are under consideration/construction; many in or on the boundaries of the Sinharaja Rain Forest Reserve.

Construction is being carried out in the Northern Sinharaja Rainforest buffer zone at Kosgulana, approximately 4km east from the Kudawa main entrance. A dam is being built blocking the Kosgulana river in Sinharaja buffer zone and several acres of rainforest have been cleared and concrete laid along the once pristine and protected riverbank. Large trucks and machinery used for construction have driven a wide track through what was once a small footpath in the Sinharaja buffer zone, between Kudawa and Kosgulana,

Another project in the rain forest where 2.5km of concrete penstock has been constructed in the Dellawa district is also said to be “causing massive environmental destruction to the stream, the wildlife and the forest The mini-hydro project will destroy a total 6.5 km stretch of the Anda Dola as water is being diverted from the weir to the powerhouse, several kilometres away. This will result in the local extinction of many endemic and endangered fish species recorded in the Anda Dola.

and what impact might this have on tourism going forward.. not everyone wants to dump themselves on a beach for two weeks…

Final thought

Sri Lanka as a country is changing. With the new government there is a greater concern for the environment and a growing resistance on the part of environmentalists to the power of local politicians and businessmen who have been allowed to ignore the environmental laws of the country. It will be interesting to see how successful they are going forward.

In any case micro hydro schemes are not the answer to Sari Lanka’s growing energy problem. Put together they will not generate the additional power needed. Neither can the island continue to afford to import large amounts of oil to generate power.

Maybe that does mean going ahead with the Sampur coal fired power station in spite of all the objections. Or maybe the government and its foreign funding partners should be looking much more seriously at wind power and solar power as alternatives rather than dumping outmoded and dirty technology on an unsuspecting population.

Acknowledgement: I am grateful, as ever, to Malaka Rodrigo for allowing me to take much of the above from his excellent article: Mini hydros; clean energy comes at a high cost to nature featured in his blog: Window to Nature

You should also read his latest blog which is a follow u on the first one at

http://www.sundaytimes.lk/160828/news/flawed-approvals-of-mini-hydro-projects-spell-river-land-destruction-206573.html

 

Fieldwork in Sri Lanka

photo: Hinimama; a local farmer on the edge of Uduwalawe national park

Sri Lanka is a unique place to visit for A level field work in Geography, Development Studies and Environmental Studies, even History and Archaeology There is so much to see and do.

Possible topic areas

you can get a clue from the range of articles in the blog, but these are just the first that come to mind; you can get site visits and talks for all of them with a bit of help.

  • Study of an NGO, Sevanatha
  • Gender based development; The women’s cooperative bank
  • The Sri Lankan Tea Industry
  • Rebranding Colombo and the new initiatives to create a mega growth pole in the Colombo region
  • Low income settlements in Colombo
  • The Sri Lankan textile industry
  • The impact of the tourism industry: Unawatuna, and  Mirissa on the south coast
  • The human /elephant conflict: Uduwalawe  National Park
  • measuring beach profiles : Hikkaduwa and Bentota

On top of that there is also the possibility to add in some more “touristy” stuff; A walk in the Cloud Forest of Horton Plains, the train ride from Colombo to Ella, an elephant safari, tea plantations and a climb up on to Sigiriya.

I accompanied my old school, The Sixth Form College, Colchester on highly successful trips in 2014 and 2015..and in fact ended up doing a large part of the organising and teaching.

Questions:
  1. How Long to go for? ideally allow 10 days plus 2 for travel either end
  2. Expense? always an issue but  Colchester SFC charged students around £1500 for a 10 day tour which seems about right
  3. Accommodation: hotel base in Colombo, up in the hills and on the South Coast; “clamping” in Uduwalae
  4. Transport? coach
  5. Contacts? ask me
  6. Safety? not really an issue
  7. Health? malaria is not an issue, although dengue fever can be in Colombo. However, with the right precautions should not be a problem; hotels etc are all ok for people with food allergies etc
  8. When to go; the monsoon periods are early June and October-November; best to avoid. Dec – Feb is high season so best weather but maybe more expensive
  9. Lead Time? allow 12 months at least

Each student will need an entry visa which they buy themselves online for approx. $35

Arranging tours abroad is always challenging but we found  hotels and other organisations in Sri Lanka to be really very efficient and very helpful. There are tips I am happy to share if people are interested;

Local contacts are necessary to get the best out of a trip like this and you can get them through your own research or by contacting me.

Happy to help

If a school is interested in planning a trip to Sri Lanka but would like to find out more then do feel free to contact me via e mail; philbrighty@gmail.com

I would be happy to help you with the planning process, and with suggestions for an itinerary, how to handle communications with parents and students and parents evenings if needed. I might even be available to accompany you on your trip around the island.

Phil Brighty; May 2016